Skin pathology

Justin Veazey
Flashcards by Justin Veazey, updated more than 1 year ago
Justin Veazey
Created by Justin Veazey over 6 years ago
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Description

Simple overview of skin pathology

Resource summary

Question Answer
What are the different forms of Sarcoids? Flat Wart-like Proud-flesh Mixed
What are the common causes of Equine Sarcoids? Bovine Papillomavirus 1/2
What are adnexal structures? Any 'other things' in the epidermis: Hair follicles glands (sebaceous, apocrine, eccrine, circumanal, tail, anal) Claws/hooves
What are Merkel cells? Sensory cells of the epidermis
What layer is the difference between Haired skin and hairless skin? (bonus for which one has it) Hairless has a Stratum lucidum
What are the layers of the Epidermis of haired skin? (4) Stratum corneum stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Stratum basale
What are the main components of the dermis/subcutis ground substance? (2) Glycosaminoglycans Proteoglycans
Which layer increases in thickness with hyperkeratosis? Stratum corneum
Which form is Seborrhea sicca? Dry form of Idiopathic Seborrhea
What is seborrhea oleosa? [seborrhea oleosa] Greasy form of Idiopathic seborrhea
Where does Epidermal hyperplasia normally occur histologically? (where in the layers of cells; bonus for name) Increase in the number of cells within the stratum spinosum [Acanthosis]
What pathology of homonal imbalances causes skin atrophy? Hyperadrenocorticism (can cause skin atrophy)
what characterizes Spongiosis? intercellular edema
What constitutes an Algal Infection? Granulomatous dermatitis & Panniculitis [Prototheca sp.]
What are the histiologic findings of Demodicosis in dogs? Epidermal hyperkeratosis, perifolliculitis, and lymphocytic interface mural folliculitis with intramural mites
Where does Demodicosis normally occur in cats Grossly? Chin, Eyelids, Head/Neck [Demodicosis in cats]
T/F Scabies is not zoonotic? False: Scabies is zoonotic
What do you see with Vetch Toxicosis? [Lots] Dermatitis, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, granulomatous inflammation in multiple organs (Myocardium, Kidney, Lymph nodes, thyroid, and adrenal glands)
What do you see with Ergot poisoning? Marked peripheral arteriolar vasoconstriction and damage to capillary endothelium [Stimulation of adrenergic nerves]
What do you see with Selenium poisoning? Emaciation poor quality hair coat partial alopecia
Which fungus causes Ergot poisoning? Claviceps purpurea [Ergot poisoning]
What are other names for Acral lick dermatitis? Lick Granumoma or Neurodermatitis
What is the gross appearance of Acral lick dermatitis? Lesions are circumscribed, Hairless, ulcerated
What is the common name for Pyotraumatic dermatitis? "Hot Spots" [Pyotraumatic dermatitis]
What is the Gross Appearance of Pyotraumatic dermatitis? Alopecia, Erthema, edema, circumscribed edges
What is the 'histology' behind Pyotraumatic dermatitis? Erosive to ulcerative exudative dermatitis to deeper suppurative folliculitis
What are "rete ridges"? Epidermal thickenings extending downward, Commonly seen with Callus'es
What is Intertrigo? Skin fold dermatitis [Intertrigo] (superficial dermatitis that occurs on apposed skin surfaces)
What is the pathogensis of Intertrigo? Apposed skin surfaces- frictional trauma- moisture- opportunistic bacterial infections
Pathogensis of Frostbite/thermal burns? Freezing/cellular injury Vascular damage Tissue anoxia (dry/wet) Gangrene
Describe Infectious coryza (chickens) Acute respiratory disease Sneezing, nasal discharge Swelling of the face
What is Onchocerciasis? Presence of Adult parasites in nodules within connective tissue [can be asymptomatic]
What kind of reaction does Cutaneous onchocerciasis represent? Hypersensitivity reaction to microfilarial antiges (Is what cutaneous onchocerciasis is thought to represent)
What is Stephanofilaria stilesi? Parasite Cattle in North America Cutaneous lesions; abdominal skin, midline Vector: Haematobia irritans
Describe the Leishmania sp. infection: [Leishmania sp.] Primarily affects dogs/humans intracellular protozoan Cutaneous lesions Histology: Ulcerative, exfoliative dermatitis, pustular dermatitis
What is Canine reactive histiocytosis? An immune mediated proliferative "round cell" disorder that originates from activated interstitial type dendritic cells Cutaneous- Skin & Subcutis
What are "sterile" nodular granulomatous disorders? (2) Juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis & Juvenile sterile lymphadenitis "Canine reactive histiocytosis"
What is this an example of? Hint: occurs in cattle in North America Stephanofilariasis
Very common in dogs. Commonly caused by parasites what is this an example of? Demodicosis Histology: Hyperkeratosis, perifolliculitis, lymphocytic interface mural folliculitis with intraluminal mites
What is Canine atopic dermatitis? A genetically predisposed; inflammatory Disease Commonly pruritic IgE antibodies to environmental allergens
What is urticaria? "Hives" Edema of the superficial dermis (common in horses)
What is Angioedema? [Angioedema] Edema of the deep dermis and subcutis (think deeper than Urticaria)
What type of hypersensitivity reactions are responsible for 'Canine atopic dermatitis'? Type I & Type IV [Canine atopic dermatits]
What is the predominant clinical sign of Canine atopic dermatitis? Pruritis, most being "self-inflicted" [The predominant clinical sign of pruritis]
What are the clinical findings of "Feline plasma cell pododermatitis"? Hypergammaglobulinemia (immune dysfunction) Plasma cell infiltrate "Soft/spongy swelling of foot pads"
What are 3 common 'generic' causes of laminitis? Systemic Disease Metabolic Disease or Trauma
What are the common immunoglobulins assoicated with Food hypersensitivity? IgE
What are the common lesions seen with Food hypersensitivity? Erythema papules urticaria/angioedema
What type of hypersensitivity reation does "allergic contact dermatitis" cause? Type IV hypersensitivity
What characterizes pemphigus? Vesicles/bullae and acantholysis [Pemphigus]
Describe the Pathogensis of Pemphigus Auto-antibodies are produced against proteins responsible for keratinocyte attachment
What does damage to Desmosomes result in? Acantholysis and formation of vesicles/bullae [damage to desmosomes; cell adhesion]
Describe Purpura hemorrhagica [Purpura hemorrhagica] Red or purple macules or patches caused by hemorrhage in the skin or mucous membranes
What type of Hypersensitivity reaction is caused by Purpura hemorrhagica? Type III [Purpura hemorrhagica]
What do you see with Zinc deficiency? Major cutaneous lesions Parakeratotic hyperkeratosis
What is 'Steely Wool' pathoneumonic for? Copper deficiency
What are the symptoms (of the integument) of Copper deficiency? depigmented hair/wool Steely wool
What is the main assumed pathogensis of "Seasonal flank alopecia"? Changes in photoperiod Melatonin (released from pineal gland)
Strangely found in male dogs. What hormonal imbalance is this an example of? Hyperestrogen
What commonly causes calcinosis cutis? Hyperadrenocorticism [Can cause calcinosis cutis]
What is hyperadrenocorticism usually caused by? Bilateral adrenal cortical hyperplasia or Administration of exogenous glucocorticoids
What is the common cause of 'Equine pars intermedia dysfunction'? Expanding pituitary gland (hypertrophy/hyperplasia/adenoma) [Equine pars intermedia dysfunction]
What is hypertrichosis? Failure to shed [hypertrichosis]
What kind of Lesions does Vitamin A cause? Trick question; Does not cause lesions but will effect their resolution (some problems: skin proliferation/abnormal keratinization in Cocker Spaniels)
What is Pemphigus foliaceous? Autoimmune disease Keratinocytes become unbound (Desmoglein 1 targeted)
Generally describe Paraneoplastic pemphigus: Rare/Aggressive pemphigus Solid/hematopoietic neoplasms
What is the differences between Discoid lupus and Systemic lupus erythematosus? Location; Discoid (usually located only in skin)
purpura is commonly secondary to what infection? Streptoccocus equi [purpura secondary to]
Which breed of dog is most susceptible to Dermatomyositis (vasculitis)? Shetlandsheepdogs
what are Koilocytes? [Koilocyte] swollen keratinocytes that have clear cytoplasm, perinuclear halo, and pyknotic nucleus
This is seen in a cat. Hyperplastic but not invasive Bowen's like disease
What do you commonly need for Bacterial folliculitis and furunculosis to occur? You commonly need primary factors: Excessive moisture, immune suppression, parasitic diseases (because it's secondary)
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