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Science B7

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flashcards on topic b7
Daniel Davis
Flashcards by Daniel Davis, updated more than 1 year ago
Daniel Davis
Created by Daniel Davis over 3 years ago
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Question Answer
What is a hormone? Chemical released from gland in response to a change.
What is the endocrine system composed of? Composed of glands which secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the blood steam.
What is the pituitary gland? Found in the brain. Produces and secretes many hormones in the blood. Hormones are released in response to changes in body conditions. Hormones released act on other glands to stimulate other hormones.
What hormones are released by pituitary gland? Anti-diuretic hormone, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Prolactin
What is the adrenal glands? They produce and secrete hormone adrenaline to prepare body for fight or flight.
How does adrenaline prepare for fight or flight? Binds receptors on heart muscle to increase rate & force of contraction. Heart rate & blood pressure go up. So, blood flow increases so muscle cells receive more oxygen.
What is the thyroid gland? Produces hormone thyroxine. This regulates metabolic rate; the rate at which energy is released in the body. Also, regulates breathing, heart rate & body temp. Produced in neck
What do ovaries produce? Produce oestrogen & progesterone. Oestrogen is released by ovaries causes lining of uterus to thicken. High level causes release of another hormone from pituitary gland which causes egg to be released. Progesterone maintains lining of uterus during menstrual cycle
What are hormonal methods of contraception? The pill (Stops egg development) Mini pill & Injections (Contain progesterone to produce thick mucus to stop sperm entering) Implant or skin patches slow release of eggs for months or years.
What are non-hormonal methods of contraception Barrier methods e.g condoms & diaphragms prevent sperm reaching egg. Coil prevent implantation of embryo Sterilisation - Surgical methods of male and female sterilisation.
Advantages & Disadvantages of hormonal methods? More effective, no need to think about contraception before intercourse. Some woman suffer side affects e.g head aches Do not protect from STDs
Advantages & Disadvantages of non hormonal methods Protection against STD's Easily available no need for doctor to prescribe. Useful for people who can't handle side effects. Less reliable. Need to think ahead before intercourse.
What happens when blood glucose concentration is too high? Pancreas released hormone insulin. Insulin stimulates movement of glucose from blood into cells Liver and muscle cells convert excess glucose into glycogen for storage.
What is type 1 & 2 diabetes Type 1 - Disorder which pancreas fails to produce enough insulin. Type 2 - A disorder where the body cells no longer respond to insulin produced by pancreas.
What is the target organ for insulin? The liver because this is where it removes glucose from blood turning it into glycogen.
What is the cause for type 2 diabetes? When the body becomes resistant to insulin.
Why is it important to measure blood glucose concentration levels? Too little glucose can cause confusion, unconsciousness, even coma. Too much can cause exhaustion and blurred vision.
What is the function of hormones? Chemical messengers that pass into the blood stream and influence function of immune system or alter behavior.
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