Cell Division

megan.radcliffe16
Flashcards by megan.radcliffe16, updated more than 1 year ago
megan.radcliffe16
Created by megan.radcliffe16 over 6 years ago
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A Levels Biology (F211) Flashcards on Cell Division, created by megan.radcliffe16 on 11/23/2014.

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Question Answer
What is the purpose of Mitosis? Produces somatic cells
How many divisions are there in mitosis? One
What is the product from Mitosis? One to two daughter cells Identical to each other and the mother cell.
What is the purpose of Meiosis? Produces reproductive cells
What is the process of Meiosis? Reduction division
What is the product of Meiosis? One to four cells Daughter cells different
Define Diploid two sets of each chromosomes
Define Haploid A single set of chromosomes
What are the functions of mitosis? 1. Growth of organism 2. Cell replacement 3. Regeneration 4. Asexual reproduction 5. Maintains genetic stability
What are the stages of the cell cycle? Interpahse (G1 phase-> S phase-> G2 phase)-> Mitosis -> Cytokinesis.
What are the stages of mitosis? 1. Prophase 2. Metaphase 3. Anaphase 4. Telophase
What occurs in the G1 phase? 1. synthesis of organelles and cell components 2. Protein synthesis 3. Respiration rates high 4. Cell increases volume
What occurs in the S phase? 1. DNA replicates 2. Synthesis of histone proteins 3. Each chromosome becomes a pair of chromatids
What occurs in the G2 phase? 1. Chloroplasts and mitochondria a increase in number 2. High rates of respiration and protein synthesis 3. Centrioles duplicate
What is cell cycle replication? The chromosomes are proof read by enzymes to check that the copying is properly. If not mutations occur,
What happens in Prophase? Chromosomes condense. Centrioles move to opposite poles Microtubules from spindle Nuclear envelope and nucleolus is broken down.
What happens in Metaphase? Chromosomes migrate to the equator of cell Chromosomes attached centromere to spindle fibres at equator of spindle.
What happens in Anaphase? Centromere divides and pairs of chromatids separate and are pulled to oposite poles. chromatids becomes chromosomes.
What happens in Telophase? Chromosomes uncoil and lengthen Spindle microtubules are broken down and used in cytoskeleton Nucleus, nuclear membrane and nucleolus reform.
What happens in Cytokinesis? Cytoplasm divides Microtubules constrict cell into two.
How does cell division occur in yeast by budding? 1. A swelling occurs in the cell wall 2. nucleus divides by mitosis 3. one of the nuclei plus cytoplasm moves into bud 4. Bud separates to form new cell
What kind of reproduction takes place in yeast cells? Asexual reproduction
Define Tissue. A group of often similar cells working together that perform a particular function.
Define Stem Cell Cells that have not differentiated and are able to divide by mitosis to form specialised types of cells.
Define Differentiation. the process of a less specialised cell develops to have particular function.
What are the characteristics of epithelial tissue in animal cells? 1. Cells are packed in one or more layers. 2. Specialised 3. Endothelium- occurs on inside of blood vessels. 4. Separated from underlying tissue by a thin sheet of connective tissue. 5. Has protective or secretory function.
What are the characteristics of Squamous epithelium? 1. Thin, flat plates 2. Ideal diffusion surface 3. Used for lining of cavities
What are the characteristics of Ciliated Columnar epithelium? 1. Cilia are exposed on their surface. 2. Cilia - capable of rapid, rhythmic wavelike beatings 3. used to waft materials along the surfaces.
What are the functions of Epithelial Tissue? 1. Protection 2. Secretion 3. absorption 4. Diffusion/ Gas exchange 5. Reduces friction
Define Organ A combination of different tissues working together to perform a particular function.
Define Organ System A group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions.
What kind of tissue are Xylem and Phloem? Vascular Tissue.
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