Cold Environments- Landforms

Lucy Monger
Flashcards by Lucy Monger, updated more than 1 year ago
Lucy Monger
Created by Lucy Monger over 6 years ago


Depositional and Erosional landforms found in cold environments

Resource summary

Question Answer
Kettle Holes
Pyramidal Peak
Hanging Valley
Corrie/Cirque With a Tarn
U-Shaped Valley
Ribbon Lake
Roche Moutanee
What are the two overall methods for depositional landforms? -Ice Contact Deposits -Glaciofluvial Deposits
Ice Contact Deposits -Ice transports material on it, in it and below it -The deposited material is known as glacial till (boulder clay)
Glaciofluvial Deposits -The meltwater of ice flowing on the ice, in it or below it -Meltwater streams carry debris and deposit during times of deglaciation and ablation
How is a corrie formed? EROSIONAL -North east slope aspect, glacial feature -Rotational-flow and extrusion flow move glacier from hollow -Abrasion/plucking as travel downhill due to basal sliding -Bergschrund (crack/crevasse in glacier) -Tarn left from melted glacier -Arete= 2 Pyramidal Peak=3
Arete EROSIONAL A knife-shaped edge -Formed when two corries form side by side
How are erratics formed? DEPOSITIONAL- ICE CONTACT Large boulders, foreign to local geology due to being dumped by ice normally in flat areas
How are hanging valleys formed? EROSIONAL Small U-shaped valley formed by a small glacier hanging above a large U-shaped valley HINT: Waterfall present
Eskers DEPOSITIONAL- GLACIOFLUVIAL Long sinuous ridges of sand and gravel, varying in height and stretching over km long Represent bedload of ancient meltwater streams
Kettle Holes DEPOSITIONAL- ICE CONTACT -Shallow lakes found on till plains -Formed during deglaciation -Stranded clocks of ice melt creating small depressions
Ribbon Lake EROSIONAL -Long linear lakes filling a glaciated trough (U-Shaped Valley) EXAMPLE: Lake Windermere
Pyramidal Peak EROSIONAL When 3 corries form back to back a high, sharp point of land remains in the centre
How are moraines formed? DEPOSITIONAL- ICE CONTACT -Lines of loose rock fragment from the valley sides and fall on the ice below
What are the two types of moraines? LATERAL MORAINES- Near the valley sides MEDIAL MORAINES- In the centre where two lateral moraines have joined
Outwash Plains DEPOSITIONAL- GLACIOFLUCIAL Layers of sand and gravel extending over low lying areas (Flood Plains)
Roche Moutonnee EROSIONAL -Isolated, hummocky rock Two contrasting slopes: -Smooth= low angled slope (Glacier travelled from this direction) -Rough Rocks= steep jagged gradient, due to glacier plucking rocks
Drumlins DEPOSITIONAL -Oval mounds (few metres long) -Sandy till forms drumlins in low-lying areas -Steeper thicker end faces direction from which the glacier came
Kames DEPOSITIONAL- GLACIOFULVIAL -Conical, flat-topped hills reaching 20-30m high -Made of water-laid sands & gravels washed into holes -Often occur alongside kettle holes
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