BCScience9 Ch. 12 (Space Exploration)

Mari Chambers
Flashcards by Mari Chambers, updated more than 1 year ago
Mari Chambers
Created by Mari Chambers over 6 years ago
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Description

Human understanding of Earth and the universe continues to increase through observation and exploration. Earth, Moon, and Sun interactions. Aboriginal knowledge of the solar system. Exploring space: past, present, and future.

Resource summary

Question Answer
What are the large circular features on the Moon called? Craters
How did the large circular features on the Moon form? The Moon has no atmosphere to protect it from bombardment by debris from space.
Name the area of light patterns on the surface of the Moon. Lunar highlands
Name the area of dark patterns on the surface of the Moon. Mare
What are lunar phases? The changing appearances of the Moon.
Why do lunar phases occur? The Moon orbits around Earth, therefore the Sun's light hits the Moon at different angles.
How long does it take the Moon to make a complete revolution around Earth? About 29.5 days
Define axis tilt The 23.5° tilt of the Earth on its axis from the flat plane of Earth's orbit.
Define constellations Distinctive patterns in the night sky formed by groups of stars that often look like familiar objects, such as animals
Who is Copernicus? Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) is a Polish astronomer who first proposed the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Who is Galileo? (1564-1642) An Italian physicist and astronomer whose use of the early telescope allowed him to make many observations that confirmed Copernicus's model of a heliocentric solar system.
Who is Kepler? Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) is a German mathematician and astronomer who determined that the planets in our solar system orbit the Sun in elliptical paths.
What is a lunar eclipse? An overshadowing of the Moon that occurs when Earth lies directly between the Moon and the Sun during a full moon phase
Who is Ptolemy? A Greek mathematician, geographer, and astronomer whose extensive work supported the geocentric model of the solar system, which was widely accepted until Copernicus's heliocentric model emerged.
What is a solar eclipse? An overshadowing of Earth that occurs when the Moon is between the Sun and Earth and the Moon blocks the Sun's light
How has human understanding of the universe evolved? As echnology improves, we observe more of space
When do astronomers believe that the Moon formed? Shortly after the solar system from rocky material orbiting the Earth
How do we experience day and night? The Earth's rotation (roughly 24 hours)
How do we experience seasons? The Earth's axis tilt and revolution around the Sun.
How are eclipses caused? What is the difference between a solar and lunar eclipse? The Earth can block the light of the Sun from the Moon (lunar) or the Moon can block the light of the Sun from Earth (solar) due to their orbits.
Why were early people more aware of daily and seasonal changes? What did this result in today? For multiple purposes such as navigating, preparing, tracking. Many astronomical observatories were made, and are still here today.
When did humans begin to understand celestial movements? Technology helped humans see beyond the naked eye.
Connect the names and terms Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, heliocentric, and geocentric. For a long time, Ptolemy's theory of the Earth as the center of the solar system was accepted. However, Copernicus had a theory that the Sun was the center of the solar system. When Galileo invented the telescope, he confirmed Copernicus's theory. Johannes Kepler's discovery that the planets orbited in elliptical paths strengthened the heliocentric model.
Which country's astronomers are credited with making the first formal records about star and planet motions? How accurate were their observations? China's observations were highly accurate.
What are the common patterns on the Moon? A man's face, a woman's face, a hunter, and a rabbit.
Name some features of the Moon. -dominant feature visible at night -brightest body in solar system -only satellite of Earth
What is the giant impact theory or ejected ring theory? A planetary body the size of Mars slammed into the young Earth, an impact so intense that large pieces of the planet broke off and scattered into space, eventually orbiting Earth, building up over millions of years into the Moon.
Where does lunar and lunatic derive from? Lunar derives from Luna, the Roman goddess of the Moon, meaning anything relating to the Moon. Lunatic derives from the superstition of people acting crazy during a full moon.
Does the Moon produce its own light? No, the Moon's surface reflects the Sun's light
What are the moon phases? Amount of light increases from right to left. New, waxing crescent, waxing half, waxing gibbous, full, waning gibbous, waning half, waning crescent.
How does the Moon affect Earth's tides? The lunar gravity attracts water as the Moon orbits the planets (ocean level rises in some areas ((high tide)), falls in others ((low tide)))
What is an eclipse? The total or partial overshadowing of one celestial body by another.
What blocks the Sun's light during a lunar eclipse? The Moon
What is the darkest part of the Moon's shadow on Earth called? The umbra
Why do you see only a partial eclipse if you are standing in the penumbra? The penumbra is an area of partial shadow, so you would see only a partial eclipse.
Why does a solar eclipse not occur every time the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth? The Moon's orbit around Earth is on a different plane than Earth's orbit around the Sun.
Describe Earth's rotation and tilt. Earth's 23.5° tilt and its revolution around the Sun create the seasons. Earth's full rotation on its axis creates a day. The axis always points in the same direction.
Explain the solstices The summer solstice is when the Sun's path across the sky is the highest, making the winter solstice the lowest. In far northern latitudes, during the summer solstice, the Sun does not set, and during the winter solstice, the Sun does not rise.
What is the pattern of solar and lunar eclipses? Lunar, solar, lunar
Why is the word umbra used for the central dark area of the shadow? Umbra is the Latin word for shadow, and the prefix "pen-" is Latin for almost. The penumbra is the "almost shadow".
What has the Big Dipper been seen as? A chariot, plough, and bear.
Where is the oldest map of the stars believed to be found? The prehistoric caves in France
What is the difference between meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites? Meteoroids: space rocks Meteors: meteoroids that burn up in our atmosphere Meteorites: meteors that reach Earth's surface
3 errors -Earth and Water -Air -Fire -Sun revolves around Earth -Order of planets
"If we always see the same side of the Moon that is lit by the Sun, the other side of the Moon should be constantly dark." If we always see the same side of the Moon that is lit by the Sun, then the other side of the Moon is lit by the Sun as well (phases).
If Earth had two moons, would each body experience more eclipses? In short, yes.
Define holistic A belief that all individual parts are interconnected to form a whole.
Define lunar month A measurement of time from one new moon to the next (about 29.5 days)
Define Western science Science based on the physical realm, studying phenomena that can be physically observed, measured, documented, and tested
Connect holistic and unity Aboriginal people believe everything is interconnected, therefore the universe is a unity.
What is a vision quest? A way that some people purposefully interact with the spiritual realm
How does holistic apply to the universe? Everything is interconnected
Why do Aboriginals have an understanding of the Moon? Navigation, tracking, forecasting
How did Aboriginals use planet and star positions? Information, locating, tracking, navigating distances, measure length of seasons
How have Aboriginal knowledge and Western science connected? Aboriginal knowledge has contributed to Western science astronomy (moon and constellations), but no stories
Why were lunar calendars used? To track time and predict weather and tides
How have traditions and astronomical knowledge been passed down? Storytelling (word of mouth) until written down
What are ethics? A set of moral principles that guide people to make decisions (what is right and wrong)
What is geosynchronous orbit? The orbit of a satellite moving at the same speed and direction as Earth's rotation, satellite stays stationary about fixed point on Earth
What is an optical telescope? Reflecting/refracting telescope, focuses light from distant objects
What is a probe? Space vehicle carrying scientific instruments, sent to fly past, orbit, or land on a celestial body to collect data
What is a radio telescope? Large receiver, collects radio waves (longer wavelengths than visible light)
Rover Probe, land on planet, explore/test surface, send info to Earth
Satellite Device, orbit around Earth, relay info
Terraforming Making a planet suitable for human life
Compare refracting and reflecting telescopes Refract-lens Reflect-mirror
Interferometry (array) Combine telescopes to imitate single larger telescope
What are some non-optical telescopes? X-ray, radio, anything on the electromagnetic spectrum outside of visible light
How has the invention of the telescope helped the science of astronomy? New technology = New discoveries
What is the advantage of interferometry? Less expensive and less difficult
Earth-based telescope conditions (solution?) Cloudy weather, air and light pollution, heat/atmosphere distortion, analyze data. Space-based!
Statellite uses Communications services, remote sensing (satellite picture = info)
Canadarm 2 Robotic arm, performs tasks outside ISS, retrieve/launch satellites, stable astronaut platform
5 spinoff technology High-tech running shoes, bicycle helmts, insulin pumps, eye exam systems, locator beacons, sunglasses, light sportswear, cold weather clothing, freeze-dried food
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