Germany and the Growth of Democracy

Phoenix Featherstone
Flashcards by , created 4 months ago

Germany- AQA History

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Phoenix Featherstone
Created by Phoenix Featherstone 4 months ago
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Question Answer
What changes did Germany experience after WW1? Unified country with no states, growth of German army, seizure of additional territory, industrial expansion, expansion of overseas trade
What were some personal qualities of Kaiser Wilhelm? Wasn't good at taking advice, ambitious for Germany, bad decision-maker, dazzling personality (eccentric), unreliable, spontaneous
Why did Germany surrender to the allies? They were losing on the battlefield, allies might invade them, lost morale, running out of supplies
Write an account of the Kaiser's abdication Sailors mutinied at Kiel, Kaiser send army but they join the protest, soldiers and workers take control of cities, democrats give Kaiser ultimatum (abdication or revolution), Kaiser flees to Holland
What were the impacts of WW1 on the German Anarchy? Extremely unstable monarchy, violent demonstrations against the Kaiser
What were the physical impacts of WW1 on Germany? Food shortages and starvation, farming disruption, flu epidemic, bread and turnips was all they could eat (not varied diet)
What were the psychological impacts of WW1 on Germany? Germans were bitter and angry, no longer ambitious, looking for scapegoat (someone to blame), squabbling and conflict
What were the political impacts of WW1 on Germany? Weak Reichstag, working/middle class had no say in matters, military dictatorship, no effective opposition against the Kaiser
Write an account on the Ludendorff Offensive Germany launch an attack on the western front with high hopes, troops move through Belgium and France. Germany think they're going to win
Write an account on the British Naval Blockade GB place ships along German coastline to prevent supplies from getting in. Food, medicine and clothes shortages, civilians revolt against government for pro-peace
Write an account on August 1918 Allied Counter-attack Germany are weak. The Allies take back all of their land. Over 1 million soldiers and civilians left dead
What problems were faces by Ebert in 1920? Treaty of Versailles, Rise of Radical Political Parties, Communism, Freikorps (ex-soldiers), Poverty and Damage, Exile of the Kaiser
The Weimer Constitution had equal rights for all Germans over 20. Discuss strengths and weaknesses of this. Accurate representation, inclusive and fair. Gives rights to those that want to overthrow the Reichstag
The Weimer Constitution had proportional representation. Discuss strengths and weaknesses of this. Fair between German parties. Encourages small parties with no chance, hard to get majorities, results in weak coalitions
The Weimer Constitution had strong president with many powers. Discuss strengths and weaknesses of this. Keep control of Germany, protect from crisis. Could abuse power and become a dictator
The Weimer Constitution had states keep power of their own affairs. Discuss strengths and weaknesses of this. Different parts of Germany took pride in their own cultures and traditions. States could try to overthrow the government
The Weimer Constitution had chancellor appointed by president with support of the Reichstag. Discuss strengths and weaknesses of this. Democratic, he can't just do what he wants. Difficult to get a majority, too much power to the president.
The Weimer Constitution had Article 48, allowing president to make emergency decisions without Reichstag. Discuss strengths and weaknesses of this. Quick and easy. President could abuse his power
Write an account of the Ruhr Invasion Reparations demanded, Germany can't pay, France and Belgium invade Ruhr and take coal, passive resistance, output of Ruhr collapses, France and Belgium leave
How did the Ruhr invasion lead to hyperinflation? The government felt they had to pay the wages of the strikers and compensation for the unsettled Germans, they wan out of money and kept printing more which reduced the value of the money
What were some effects of hyperinflation? People lose life saving, people don't need to pay debt, elderly on pensions suffer, small businesses collapse
How did the Weimar Republic solve the Spartacist revolution? Ebert sent in the Freikorps, people didn't comply because middle class were terrified of the spread of communism
How did the Weimar Republic solve the Kapp Putsch? The government did nothing but the workers went on a strike so Kapp received no help and eventually called off the invasion
How did the Weimar Republic solve the Invasion of the Ruhr? Passive resistance of German workers
How did the Weimar Republic solve the Hyperinflationary Crisis? Received help from the Americans that set up the Dawes plan. Stresemann created Rentenmark (new currency) which Germans adapted quickly to
How did the Weimar Republic solve the Munich Putsch? Hitler and the Nazis were stopped by police before their invasion got out of hand
What happened during the Munich Putsch? Hitler launched into a beer hall and shot the roof, he locked the Bavarian prime minister in a room at gunpoint
How did the Munich Putsch help the Nazi Party? Publicity gained from press coverage, short prison sentence, wrote 'Mein Kampf', change of strategy for rise to power
How did the Munich Putsch not help the Nazi Party? The Putsch failed, humiliating defeat, political setback, low morale, thought career was over
What were the Nazi party doing while Hitler was in prison? Trying to win by legal means, Entered Reichstag under false name and got just over 30 seats, Entered again and failed horribly, only preferable for working class
How did Gustav Stresemann help Germany to recover? The Great Coalition, Created Reichsmark to stop hyperinflation, Signed Dawes Plan, Arranged for Germany to enter the League of Nations
What were some problems encountered during the Stresemann years? Dependant on American loans, Issues with agriculture, Extremes of rich and poor, Unbalanced concentrations of power, Different president, Extremist uprising, No plans would last
What progress was there in the Stresemann years concerning the Foreign Policy? Locarno treaty, joined LON, Kellog-Briand pact, restored international relationships, accepted into international community
What progress was there in the Stresemann years concerning the economy? Began to recover, Leading exporters in manufactured goods, Dawes plan, Young plan, 3 million new homes built
What progress was there in the Stresemann years concerning politics? Stable government, Decline in support for extremists, No Putsches or rebellions, Nazis are small party
What regress was there in the Stresemann years concerning the Foreign Policy? Criticised by right-wing parties for not demanding back terms of TOV, Underlying tension between Germany and France
What regress was there in the Stresemann years concerning the economy? Dependent on American loans, Serious unemployment, Welfare benefit too high, Farming income too low, extremes of rich and poor, concentration of power with industrialists
What regress was there in the Stresemann years concerning politics? Nationalists want to scrap TOV, Communists and Nazis want to overthrow, Hindenburg has old-fashioned views, Too many unsuccessful coalitions
Describe the Weimar Culture around painting Artists were more open to painting the harsh realities of everyday life under the Weimar Republic
Describe the Weimar Culture around cinema Golden age of cinema, Metropolis was the most technologically advanced films of the 1920s
Describe the Weimar Culture around architecture Enthusiasm for modern materials, new groups of architecture and design called Bauhaus
Describe the Weimar Culture around theatre More realism and blatant disrespect for traditional values
Describe the Weimar Culture around nightlife Daring floor shows, more scandalous, homosexuality is more welcomed
What are the 4 biggest political results of the depression 1. Fear of hyperinflation led to unpopular economic policies 2. Collapse of Weimar coalition 3. Article 48 4. Rise of extremism
Name some factors that helped Hitler become chancellor Failure to deal with depression, violence, Nazi policies, support from businesses, German dislike of democrats, TOV, Propaganda, Appeal of Hitler, SA