PRAXIS II: READING/LANGUAGE ARTS REVIEW

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Flashcards on PRAXIS II: READING/LANGUAGE ARTS REVIEW, created by jagwife94 on 01/09/2015.

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READING/LANGUAGE ARTS REVIEW *NARRATIVE *NONFICTION *POETRY *RESOURCE & RESEARCH MATERIAL
NARRATIVE A type of literature that tells a story. Narratives are associated with fictional writing, which means that the story is invented, with made-up characters & an imaginary plot. Examples of different types of narratives:
ADVENTURE Fiction provides a great deal of action (often violent). A fictional military-based narrative may be considered adventure fiction.
A FABLE Is a story that uses animals or plants to provide a moral lesson. The animals, which can include mythical creatures, are anthropomorphized, meaning that they have human characteristics.
FANTASY Fiction involves an invented world, such as J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle Earth in the Lord of the Rings series
A FOLK TALE A traditional story that can date back many centuries. Many folk tales were originally passed down orally.
HISTORICAL FICTION Includes fictional stories based around historical events. A made-up love story that occurs during the Civil War or on the Titanic would be representative of historical fiction.
A LEGEND Is a story that, while based on a supposed event in human history, is most likely a fictional tale. Legends do not contain unbelievable events, such as magic, but that does not mean they should be believed.
A MYTH Is like a fairy tale, but instead of including magical elements such as fairies, it usually includes a god or hero to explain a phenomenon.
MYSTERY Fiction involves stories where the characters attempt to find information. The discovery occurs at the climax of the book. Detective mysteries are the most common type of mystery books.
A NOVEL Is a lengthy narrative that only includes fictional context. The novel is usually considerably longer than other types of narratives.
A PLAY Is a type of literature that is intended to be interpreted on the stage by actors. Examples of literary plays include comedies and tragedies written by William Shakespeare. Plays may be acted out as "story theater" for children, or even as "puppetry".
SCIENCE FICTION Is a type of a narrative that takes place in the future. As a result, the setting plays a large role, as do the science and technology of the future.
A SHORT STORY Has the same structure as a novel but is much shorter, as its name suggests.
SEVEN (7) MAJOR ELEMENTS OF A STORY *PLOT *CHARACTERS *SETTING *TONE *POINT OF VIEW *PERSPECTIVE *ORGANIZATION *THEME
PLOT Refers to the series of events in a story - the order in which the action take place. A story's plot always revolves around some kind of "conflict". The conflict may be between two characters, between the main character and an idea or force, or between the character and him - or herself.
PLOT: FIVE-PART "PYRAMID" PATTERN THOUGH THE PYRAMID SHOULD BE LOPSIDED, SINCE THE CLIMAX TYPICALLY OCCURS NEAR THE END OF THE STORY.
1. EXPOSITION Introduces readers to the people, places, and basic circumstances or situation of the story.
2. COMPLICATION (Sometimes referred to as "rising action") is the series of events that complicate the story and build up to the climax.
3. CLIMAX Is the high point of the story, the moment of greatest tension (the peak of the pyramid). This is often the turning point of the story, when a character must make a difficult decision or take some kind of action.
4. FALLING ACTION Occurs when the missing pieces of the puzzle are filled in (for example, secrets are revealed, mysteries solved, confessions made). The story settles down.
5. RESOLUTION or DENOUEMENT Is the conclusion of the story, in which conflicts are resolved (at least to some degree), questions are answered, and characters are set to move on with a new understanding or under new circumstances.
CHARACTERS Are the people created by the author to tell the story. They perform the actions, speak the words, and convey the ideas of the story. As readers, we see what the characters think, do, and say, and we try to understand why they think, do, and say these things.
ROUND CHARACTERS Are fully developed, complex, three-dimensional creatures. They are dynamic characters who embody contradictions and undergo change or growth of some sort throughout the story.
FLAT CHARACTERS Are one-dimensional, undeveloped, and static. They are typically defined by one main characteristic and do not change. They are often stereotypes or symbolic.
PROTAGONIST Is the hero or main character of the story, the one who faces the conflict and undergoes change.
ANTAGONIST Is the person, force, or idea that works against the protagonist.
SETTING Is the time and place in which the story unfolds. This gives the story a particular social and historical context. What was happening in the world at the time? The setting of a narrative can be described through details of not only the visual scenery but also the smells and sounds, among other things.
TONE Is the mood or the attitude conveyed in the writing.
SITUATIONAL IRONY (TONE) Occurs when there incongruity between what is expected to happen and what actually occurs.
POINT OF VIEW / PERSPECTIVE Refers to the person who is telling us the story.
NARRATOR (POV) THE PERSON WHO DESCRIBES THE CHARACTERS AND EVENTS.
A FIRST PERSON NARRATOR Tells the story from his or her own point of view using "I"
SECOND-PERSON POINT OF VIEW The writer uses the pronoun "you", and thus the reader because a character in the story, thinking the thoughts and performing the actions of the main character.
THIRD-PERSON NARRATOR The author uses the pronouns, he, she, and they to tell the story. This narrator is removed from the action, so the story is more objective.
PERSPECTIVE Can be considered the narrator's attitude throughout the story.
THEME You have to evaluate the whole and consider the questions the story has raised, the points it has made, and the positions it has taken.
NONFICTION Literature is defined by a truth-based recount of actual events. Nonfiction texts deal with real people and real events.
ESSAYS Different types
DESCRIPTIVE Describing a person, place, or thing
NARRATIVE Telling a story or describing an event
EXPOSITORY Exploring and explaining an idea or position
PERSUASIVE Arguing a specific point of view
AUTOBIOGRAPHY OR MEMOIR The author will - very subjectively, of course - tell the story of his or her life. The difference between autobiographies and memoirs is that memoirs tend to be less comprehensive and more exploratory - they will cover less ground and spend more time examining the impact of people and events.
JOURNAL WRITING OR JOURNALING Is a personal type of writing that requires a student to writ down his or her thoughts with a degree of regular frequency.
INFERENCES / CONCLUSIONS Draw a logical conclusion, about what you read.
MAIN IDEA / PRIMARY PURPOSE When the writer is describing an experience in a nonfiction text, he or she has a reason for telling that story, and that reason - why the writer thinks the story is important enough to tell - is the main idea
PURPOSE In a nonfiction text, it may vary. It may simply be to inform the reader of some knowledge or to analyze some data, but it may be more biased than that.
POETRY Is often easy to recognize but not as easy to define. Poems are usually short, and often rhyme, but not always.
EMOTIVE POEM Aims to capture a mood or emotion and to make readers feel that mood or emotion.
LYRICAL POEMS Short, emotional poems that are perusal from a single speaker.
IMAGISTIC POEMS Aims to capture a moment and help us experience that moment sensually (through our senses).
NARRATIVE POEMS Tell Stories
ARGUMENTATIVE POEMS Explore an idea (such as love or valor).
ELEGY Is a poem that laments the loss of someone or something.
ODE Is a poem that celebrates a person, place, thing, or event.
ELEMENTS OF SOUND Although not all poems use rhyme, this is the most recognized element of sound in poetry.
RHYME Is the repetition of identical or similar stressed sounds at the end of a word.
EXACT RHYMES Share the same last syllables (the last consonant and vowel combination). Examples: cat, hat; laugh, staff; refine, divine.
HALF-RHYMES Share only the final consonant (s). Ex: cat, hot; adamant, government.
EYE RHYMES Look like a rhyme because the word endings are spelled the same, but the words don't sound the same. Ex: bough, through; enough, through.
ALLITERATION The repetition of sounds. The sound is most found at the beginning of words but can also be found throughout words. Ex: the words pitter patter use alliteration at the beginning (repetition of the p sound).
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