Oil & Gas Geology Terms

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Flashcards by s_viola8, updated more than 1 year ago
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Flashcards on Oil & Gas Geology Terms, created by s_viola8 on 01/09/2015.

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Anticline An elongate fold in which the sides or limbs slope downward away from the crest
Bed A specific layer of earth or rock separated by visually or physically-defined boundary planes from the layers of different material lying above, below, or adjacent to it
Bedrock The more or less solid, undisturbed rock in place either at the surface or beneath superficial deposits of gravel, sand, or soil
Bentonite A soft, porous rock consisting largely of silica and composed essentially of clay minerals
Caprock The impermeable rock overlying an oil or gas reservoir that prevents the migration of the oil or gut out of the reservoir
Carbonate rock A rock consisting chiefly of carbonate minerals, such as limestone or dolomite
Conglomerate A cemented clastic rock containing transported rock fragments of gravel or pebble size. Also known as puddingstone.
Connate water Water that is contained within a rock formation, and that was originally entrapped in the interstice of the rock material at the time the material was deposited
Crude oil Liquid petroleum in its natural state in an underground reservoir or as it merges from a well, or after it passes through a separator, but prior to any refining or distilling process
Dolomite A carbonate sedimentary rock composed mainly of the mineral dolomite
Dome An anticlinal uplift approximated circular or elliptical in shape
Effective Permeability A measure of the ability of a particular fluid to flow through a rock
Effective Porosity The portion of pore space in saturated permeable material in which movement of fluids take place
Eolian Pertaining to the wind; a designation for rocks and soils whose constituents have been transported and deposited by atmospheric currents
Fault A break in the materials of the earth's crust in which there has been movement parallel with the surface along which the break occurs
Fault Plane An approximately planar surface along which dislocation or faulting has taken place
Fault Zone A zone in which there are a number of more or less closely spaced faults
Field A geographical area in which a number of oil or gas wells produce from a continuous reservoir. There may be a number of separate reservoirs at various depths within a single field
Floodplain A strip of relatively smooth land bordering a stream, built of sediment carried by the stream and deposited in the slack water beyond the influence of the swiftest current during flooding
Fold A bend or flexure in a layer or layers of rock
Fracture A line where a rock has broken due to folding or faulting
Geology The science that deals with the origin, composition, structure, and history of the world
Graben A long, narrow block of the Earth's crust that has been relatively depressed by normal faults along the sides
Ground water Subsurface water in a zone of saturation
Horst A long, narrow block of the Earth's crust that has been relatively uplifted between normal faults along the sides
Igneous rock Rock formed by the solidification of hot, mobile, rock material (magma)
Lacustrine Pertaining to, produced by, or formed in a lake or lakes
Limestone A sedimentary rock composed mainly of calcium carbonate
Magma Hot, mobile rock material generated with the earth, from which igneous rock is formed through cooling and crystallization
Metamorphic rock Rock that is formed from original igneous, sedimentary, or older metamorphic rock through alterations produced by pressure , heat, or the infiltration of other materials at depths below the surface zones of weathering and cementation
Natural Gas A highly compressible gas, highly expansible mixture of hydrocarbons having a low specific gravity occurring naturally in a gaseous form
Oil pool The accumulation of oil in the pores of sedimentary rock that yields petroleum on drilling
Oil sand A sandstone that yields oil
Oil shale Broadly, any of a number of sedimentary materials that have the common property of yielding oil by distillation
Organic Being, containing, or relating to carbon compounds, usually derived from the remains of plant and animal life
Outcrop A part of a body of rock that appears, bare and exposed at the surface of the ground
Pangea A hypothetical supercontinent early in the geological past, composed of all the earth crust at the time, and from which the present continents were formed by fragmentation and displacement
Permeability The measure of a rock's ability to transmit fluids
Petroleum Oil or gas obtained from the rocks of the earth
Plate tectonics Branch of geology that affirms the existence of large blocks of continental and oceanic crust floating on viscous material in the mantle of the earth
Pore space The volume of holes or voids in a rock
Porosity The ratio of the voids or pores in a rock to its total volume or size
Relief The variations in the elevation of land surface considered collectively
Reservoir A subsurface, porous, permeable rock body in which oil and/or gas is stored
Rock cycle That series of events included in the formation, alteration, destruction, and reformation of rocks, and usually involving one or more of the following processes: erosion, transportation, deposition lithification, and metamorphism
Salt dome a more or less circular uplift of sedimentary rocks caused by the pushing up of a body of salt
Sandstone A compacted sedimentary rock with common physical characteristics
Sedimentary rock Rock that is composed of sediment: mechanical, chemical or organic. It is formed through the agency of water, wind, glacial ice, or organisms, and is deposited at the surface of the earth at ordinary temperatures
Shale A fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of consolidated silt and clay or mud
Strata Sections of sedimentary formations that consist of the same type of rock
Structural trap A petroleum trap that is formed because of deformation of the rock layer that contains petroleum
Sunsidence The gradual downward settling or sinking of the earth's surface
Syncline A fold that is concave upward
Tectonic Pertaining to the rock structures and external forms resulting from the deformation of the earth's crust
Tight formation A petroleum formation of relatively low porosity and permeability
Tight sand A sand with such little pore space, or with the pore space so filled with clay or cementing material that oil and water cannot pass through
Trap An arrangement of rock strata or structures that halts the migration of oil or gas and causes them to accumulate
Viscosity The property of a substance offering resistance to flow
Vug A cavity in a rock
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