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Biology: Unit 1 Human Systems


Grade 11
Gurleen Dhillon
Flashcards by Gurleen Dhillon, updated more than 1 year ago
Gurleen Dhillon
Created by Gurleen Dhillon over 7 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Macromolecule Large molecule made up of small molecules that are linked together
Metabolism Total of all the chemical reactions that occur in the organism
Essential Nutrient Nutrient that must be obtained by food
Carbohydrates Macromolecules: Provide short term or long term energy storage
Monosaccharides Simple sugars
Disaccharide Made up of two monosaccharide molecules
Polysaccharide many links of monosaccharide (chain)
Glycogen polysaccharide made up of glucose
Lipid Compound that does not dissolve in water
Amino Acid Building block of protein
Peptide Bonds Holds together the amino acids
Polypeptide Several amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Hydrolosis Water breaks macromolecules into smaller molecules
Enzyme Protein molecule that helps speed up the chemical reactions in the body
Ailmentary Canal Mouth at one end, Anus at the other
Mechanical Digestion Physical break-down of large pieces of food
Chemical Digestion Chemical Breakdown of nutrient molecules by enzymes
Salivary Glands glands that produce saliva to start chemical digestion
Saliva Watery secretion of the mouth
Esphogaus Muscular tube which allows food to pass
Peristalis Wave like series of muscular contractions
Bolus smooth soft mass of food
Esphogeal Sphincter entrance to the stomach
Gastric Juices Muscus that is produced by glands in the stomach aids in digestion
Chyme Liquid made up of gastric juice and digested food
Pepsin Enzyme in Gastric Juices
Pyloric Sphincter end of the stomach pushes out chyme
Duodenum section of the small intestine into which food passes from the stomach
Villi Improves absorption of nutrients found lining the surface of the small intestine
Jejunum follows immediately after duodenum
Ileum follows after the jejunum
Bile Fluid secreted by the liver that helps fight digestion
Pancreas Secretes pancreatic fluid into the duodenum each day
Liver largest internal organ
Gall Bladder Stores bile between meals
Respiratory Systems Provides living things with oxygen and gets rid of waste
Respiration process involved in bringing oxygen into the body
Inspiration Drawing oxygen air into the lungs
Expiration releasing waste air
External Respiration exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the inspired air
Gas Exchange delivery of oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs
Internal Respiration exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the blood and body's tissue
Cellular Respiration energy releasing chemical reactions that take place in the cell
Ventilation process of moving an oxygen containing medium over the respiratory surface
Pharynx passageway that connects the mouth and nasal cavity to the larynx and esophagus
Trachea Windpipe
Glottis opening of the Trachea
Larynx Between the glottis and trachea that contains the vocal cords
Bronchi Passageway that branches from the trachea to the lung
Bronchiole branches from each bronchus inside the lung into smaller thin walled tubes
Alveolus tiny air sacks found at the end of a bronchiole
Hemoglobin protein in red blood cells
Circulatory Systems Transports blood, nutrients and waste around the body
Heart Muscular organ that pumps blood through the body
Blood Vessels hollow tube that carries blood to and from body tissues
Blood fluid that transports nutrients, O2, CO2 through out the body
Pulmonary Artery Blood Vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs
Pulmonary Veins Blood vessel that carries blood from the lungs to the heart
Aorta Artery that carries blood from the heart to the arteries
Atrioventricular Valve valve between the ventricle and atrium
Semilunar Valve valve between the ventricle and large arteries ; carries blood away from heart
Arteries Carry blood away from heart
Veins carry blood towards the heart
Capillaries smallest blood vessels ;spread throughout the body
Plasma clear yellowish fluid in the blood
Red Blood Cells Hollow red cells that transport oxygen
Platelets Fragments of cells that forms when larger cells in the bone marrow break apart
White Blood Cells Fight Viruses
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