MY ART HISTORY VERSION

Piko Jaeger
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Piko Jaeger
Created by Piko Jaeger 2 months ago
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Question Answer
170px Old Man Vatican Pushkin01 (image/jpeg) Roman, Portrait of a Patrician. (Realism)
Image (binary/octet-stream) Greek, Polykleitos, Doryphoros (Idealism because the figure is built and almost looks god-like aka not an accurate portrayal)
Fourthcow (image/gif) Theo Van Doesburg, The Cow (Studies 1 - 4 for composition study) The cow in Study 1 (top left) shows naturalism because it is accurate while 2,3 and 4 show abstraction since it is not as easy to notice the cow now.
Eugh (binary/octet-stream) Greek, Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos
Eug (binary/octet-stream) Sumerian, Worshippers -> different proportions for the sculpture so this gave rise to STYLIZATION.
Stone (binary/octet-stream) Greek, Race Warrior A -> Example of a SCULPTURE IN THE ROUND (figures are 3d and not attached to flat background)
Low+Relief (binary/octet-stream) Ti Watching A Hippopotamus Hunt-> example of LOW RELIEF ( barely stand out from the background, almost like it's carved just around the edges) (Old Kingdom, Egypt, 5th Dynasty )
1. What is this? 2. What era is this? 3. What style is this? High+Relief (binary/octet-stream) 1. Wiligelmo Modena Cathedral creation and Fall from West Facade -> example of 2. Neolithic, Roman 3. HIGH RELIEF (feels as though you could touch it, it stands out from the background and is deeply carved to where it casts shadows)
1. What is this? 2. What era is this? 3. What style is this? Animals (binary/octet-stream) 1. Animals with Tectiforms, Lascaux 2. Paleolithic 3. cave paintings, tectiforms
Define tectiforms Geometric shapes in Paleolithic cave paintings
1. What is this? 2. What era is this? 3. What style is this? Venus Of Willendorf Frontview Retouched 2 (image/jpeg) 1. Venus of Wilendorf -> Austria, represents fertility, femininity 2. Neolithic 3. in the round sculpture/statuette
1. What is this? 2. What era is this? 3. What style is this? Venus Of Laussel (image/jpeg) 1. Venus of Laussel, France 2. Paleolithic 3. low relief
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What style is it? Carnac (binary/octet-stream) 1. Carnac, France 2. Neolithic 3. Alignments of menhirs at Carnac, France -> Megalith monuments and post and lintel construction. Carnac (binary/octet-stream)
Define menhir A tall upright single standing stone
Define megalith A large stone used to construct a structure or monument (think of Stonehenge in Britain) Standing Stones Of Stenness 1608x940 (image/jpeg)
Jericho (binary/octet-stream) Neolithic, Jericho tower from Settlement wall. Earliest known masonry (walls of stones) town, watchtowers
Define Dolmen 2 or 3 standing stones with another lying across it Proleek Ballykeel071 L (image/jpeg)
Define Cromlech An arrangement of menhirs and dolmens Stonehenge (binary/octet-stream)
Catal+Hyuk (binary/octet-stream) Catal Hoyuk. Description: no streets, crawled on the roofs to get across, ladders, trades routes, open courtyards, duct for trash that was covered in ash to mask the scent. (Neolithic)
Anatolia is what modern-day country? Turkey
Landscape (binary/octet-stream) Landscape from Shrine, from Anatolia the art is very stylized, the town is represented as black squares (Neolithic Era)
Egyptian+Symbols+To+Know (binary/octet-stream) Egyptian symbols to know: 1. Wedjat = Eye of Horus 2. Falcon = Horus 3. Ankh = life (cross) 4. Isis = she holds the ankh 5. Scarab = beetle
What are the six era's of Egypt to know for the exam? KNOW THE CORRECT ORDER!! 1. Pre-dynastic Egypt 2. Old Kingdom 3. Middle Kingdom 4. New Kingdom 5.Amarna Period 6. Late Dynastic Period
Define hierarchical proportions Technique where artists use unnatural proportions of scale to depict the importance of the figures in the artwork. EX: In Egypt, people of higher status are sometimes drawn/sculpted LARGER than those of LOWER status Canon+Of+Proportions (binary/octet-stream)
Define canon of proportions System based on mathematical ratios that was used by the Egyptians to create proportion in art when drawing the human OR the set of rules established by the artist on how they wish to portray their subjects. -> Long arms (egyptian), beautiful features (Greek) realistic (Roman) profile views (Sumerians) using size to depict importance (larger = more importance, smaller = less) Canon (image/gif)
Define Mastaba Burial buildings with funerary chapels and underground chambers. 220px Mastaba Schematics.Svg (image/png)
Define iconography the science of identification, description, classification, and interpretation of symbols, themes, and subject matter in the visual arts.
Define Idealization the method of portraying people, places, or things in a romanticized, and unrealistically perfect form. (HOW WE REALLY WANT TO BE SEEN)
Define style the manner in which the artist portrays his or her subject matter and how the artist expresses his or her vision.
Define stylize If something is stylized it means it's represented in a non-naturalistic conventional form. (Egyptian art with their long arms, Greeks with their beautiful sculpture figures, etc)
Define illusionism The style in which artists create a work of art that appears to share the physical space with the viewer or more broadly the attempt to represent physical appearances precisely. (EXAMPLE: THE LAMASSU is ILLUSTIONISTIC because it actually has 5 FEET when viewed DIAGONALLY, 4 when viewed on the SIDE and 2 when viewed from the FRONT -> AKA there are two different reliefs depending on your point of view. Lamassu (binary/octet-stream)
Define abstraction does not attempt to represent an accurate depiction of a visual reality but instead use shapes, colors, forms, and gestural marks to achieve its effect. Landscape (binary/octet-stream)
Define radiometric dating A method used to date rocks and other objects/ estimate the age of a variety of natural and even man-made materials.
Define necropolis A large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments
Define tell Is an artificial mound formed from the accumulated refuse of generations of people living on the same site for hundreds or thousands of years. A classic tell looks like a low, truncated cone with sloping sides.
Define libation Liquid offering to the gods
Define post and lintel Building system where strong horizontal elements are held up by strong vertical elements with large spaces between them. Example: Stonehenge (Neolithic) Stonehenge (binary/octet-stream)
Define colonnade rows of columns Example: Temple of Amen, Re/The Funerary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut (New Kingdom) Temple+Of+Amen+Re (binary/octet-stream)
Define obelisk A tall four-sided monolithic pillar (single large standing stone) with a pyramidal top -> symbolic structure for the Egyptian sun god Re. EXAMPLE: THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT IN D.C OR THE TEMPLE OF AMUN-MUT KHONSU, LUXOR (Tall thin structure on the left) Temple+Of+Amun Mut+Pylon+And+Obelisk (binary/octet-stream)
Define pylon Sloping structures that have big thick walls where the top is chopped off. EX: Temple of Amun-Mut, Khonsu, Luxor DISPLAYS A PYLON AND AN OBELISK (NEW KINGDOM) Temple+Of+Amun Mut+Pylon+And+Obelisk (binary/octet-stream)
1. Define Hypostyle hall 2. Give me an example of one. 1. Building held up by rows of columns (colonnades) 2. Temple of Amen-Re, Karnak, Egypt, New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty Hypostyle+Hall+Temple+Of+Amen Re,+Karnak (binary/octet-stream)
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? Rock Cut+Tomb (binary/octet-stream) Rock-cut tomb from Beni Hasan, (the tomb is carved into the side of a mountain in hopes of throwing off tomb-robbers) The image shows the inside of the Rock-cut tomb 2. Middle Kingdom, 11th and 12th Dynasty Interior+Of+Rock Cut+Tomb (binary/octet-stream)
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? Apadana (binary/octet-stream) 1. Apadana of Persepolis, Persia (Audience-hall) 2. PERSIAN ERA DURING XERXES AND DARIUS I
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? Zig (binary/octet-stream) 1. Ziggurat (religious temple found in Ur, Iraq) It became a religious place in the bible called 'The Tower of Babel' 2. Sumerian Era
Define modeling An additive process, as opposed to carving, the other main sculptural technique, in which portions of a hard substance are cut away to reveal form. Example: Venus of Willendorf, Austria. Venus Of Willendorf Frontview Retouched 2 (image/jpeg)
Define in the round Free-standing, the subject is popping out from the background unlike a relief Example: Greek, Race A Warrior. Notice how he is not attached to anything. Stone (binary/octet-stream)
Define stele A big slab of stone with reliefs on it. Such as Victory Stele of Naram-Sin AKKADIAN ERA or Stele of Hammurabi BABYLONIAN ERA Victory+Stele+Akkadian (binary/octet-stream)
Define sarcophagus Big stone coffins Sarcaphagus (binary/octet-stream)
1. What is this? 2. What is it made out of? 3. What Era is it from? 4. What is depicted on it? Warka+Vase (binary/octet-stream) 1. Warka Vase 2. Alabaster 3. Sumerian 4. Reliefs carved into the vase, showing visuals of offerings to the Sumerian goddess Ianna/Ishtar/Venus
1. What is this? 2. What kind of sculpture is it? 3. What is the Era it comes from? Ushanti (binary/octet-stream) 1. Ushabti (small wax or stone statues that are little servants for the deceased) 2. faience (self-glazing clay) 3. Middle Kingdom to Late Dynastic Period
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What is the purpose of them? Canopic+Jars (binary/octet-stream) 1. Canopic jars 2. Old Kingdom, Egypt, 4th Dynasty 3. to hold the internal organs of the deceased that were going to be mummified.
1. Define Ushabti (sculptures found in Egypt) 2. What Era is it from? 3. What style is it? 1. Statuette's that were placed beside in tombs and acted as servants/minions for the deceased. 2. They date from the 11th dynasty (Middle Kingdom) to the 30th Dynasty (Late Dynastic Period) 3. Faience Ushanti (binary/octet-stream)
Define votive figure Statue made as an act of devotion to the gods EXAMPLE: Gudea libation (liquid offering) Gudea (binary/octet-stream)
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? Pectoral+Necklace (binary/octet-stream) 1. Pectoral of Senwosret II (THE 2ND). The necklace drapes over the pectoral muscles 2. Middle Kingdom Egypt, 12th Dynasty * SHOWS A LOT OF SYMBOLISM: Horus, ankh, uraeus, scarab
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What material/medium was used? 4. Style? Akkadian+Ruler+Head (binary/octet-stream) 1. Head of an Akkadian ruler, from Nineveh, Iraq. 2. Akkadian 3. Copper and tin (life-size hollow metal cast) 4. Shows hows the style changed seen in the Statuette of two worshippers (SUPER ROUND AND BIG EYES) despite the eyes still being more round. Naturalism and abstract patterning -> artists carefully observed and recorded the distinctive profile of the King's nose.
1. What is this piece called? 2. What is this an example of? 3. What Era and Style is it? 4. Description Weighing+Of+The+Souls (binary/octet-stream) 1.Book of the Dead 2. Illuminated manuscript (Text that is supplemented with decorated initials with miniature illustrations -> usually illustrated books/scrolls) 3. Late Dynastic Period/Post Amarna Period (Dynasties 26 - 30) 4. It shows Osiris (god of death) and Isis (goddess of motherhood, fertility, revival, death, magic) and Anubis (dog-head god) escorting people to the afterlife.
Define Papyrus Plant found in lower Egypt that is used to make paper and scrolls. It symbolizes LOWER EGYPT.
Define cuneiform Ancient Sumerian writing that uses a stylus and stele (big slab of clay)
Be able to tell what Hieroglyphics mean what and how they look. 1. Eye of Horus 2. Scarab 3. Falcon 4. Ankh 5. Ka Egyptian+Symbols+To+Know (binary/octet-stream)
Lamassu an Assyrian protective deity, often depicted as having a human head, the body of a bull or a lion, and bird wings. *Found in the Citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin(modern Khorsabad) Iraq * Placed at the entrance and inside the palace Lamassu (binary/octet-stream)
Define lotus (used in Egyptian art) A flower that is symbolized as a bell, represents UPPER EGYPT.
Define uraeus A serpent that is found on the headdress of pharaohs
Define isocephaly Having the heads of all figures on approximately the same level. Example: The Standard of Ur, Iraq, Sound box from Lyre, Ur. Standard+Of+Ur (binary/octet-stream)
1. What is this? 2. What does it represent? 3. What Era is it from? 4. What style is it? 1. Sphinx 2. Strength and Wisdom, protection -> a mythical beast with the body of a lion, a tail and a human face. 3. Old Kingdom Egypt, 4th Dynasty 4. Ashlar masonry (carefully cut and regularly shaped blocks of stone pilled in successive rows) Great Sphinx Giza Egypt (image/jpeg)
BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THESE SUBJECTS: 1. Who is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What style is it? 4. Additional information Khafre (image/jpeg) 1. King Khafre 2. Old Kingdom Egypt, 4th Dynasty 3. Frontal in the round sculpture, stylized no realism 4. Khafre sits upright on a throne comprised of two lion’s bodies. The intertwined lotus and papyrus plants are symbolic of the united Egypt. (Lower and Upper) * The sculpture gives a feeling of eternity to the viewer
BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THESE SUBJECTS: 1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 5ea619f8516cd1503388a2e9e7ee08e8d7a78c4e (image/jpeg) 1. Khufu's pyramid, the largest of the three colossal pyramids of Gizeh, Egypt (Khufu, Khafre, Menakaure) 2. Old Kingdom, 4th Dynasty
BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THESE SUBJECTS: 1. Who is this? 2. What Era are they from? Thutmose Nefertiti (image/jpeg) 1. Akhenaton's wife, Nefertiti 2. Amarna Period Egypt 18th Dynasty
BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THESE SUBJECTS: 1. Who is this? 2. Where is it located? 3. What Era is it from? Akhenaton (binary/octet-stream) 1. King Akhenaton 2. Karnak, Egypt 3. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty
BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THESE SUBJECTS: 1. Who is this? 2. Where is this work located? 3. What Era is it from? Tutankhamen+Innermost+Coffin (binary/octet-stream) 1. Tutankhamen, the son of Akhenaton who died at a young age due to being feeble (he was placed in 3 innermost coffins) 2. Thebes, Egypt 3. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty (THE IMAGE TO THE LEFT IS HIS DEATH MASK-> a likeness of a person's face following death, often made by taking a cast or impression directly from the corpse.) Tutankhamen+Death+Mask (binary/octet-stream)
BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THESE SUBJECTS: 1. Who is this? 2. Where is it located? 3. What era is it from? 4. What style is this? Lagash+Gudea (binary/octet-stream) 1. Gudea (hat) 2. Lagash, Iraq 3. Neo-Sumerian 4. Block-statue, votive figure (used to honor the gods) (THE IMAGE TO THE LEFT SHOWS LIBATION -> A LIQUID OFFERING TO THE GODS) Gudea+Standing+Libation (binary/octet-stream)
BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THESE SUBJECTS: 1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What is the art style? Hammura1 (image/jpeg) 1. Stele of Hammurabi 2. Babylonian 3. Orant figure (Hammurabi is praying), twisted proportions because the throne and the Shamash's beard (the god) is angled. *Foreshortening -> Shamash’s beard is a series of diagonal lines instead of horizontal, the god’s throne is at an angle = enhances spatial recession. *Illusionism example
BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THESE SUBJECTS: LOOK AT THE IMAGE CIRCLED IN RED. 1. Who is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What do they represent? Book+Of+The+Dead+Osiris (binary/octet-stream) 1. The god Osiris 2. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty 3. Death, rebirth
BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THESE SUBJECTS: 1. Who is this? 2. What era are they from? 3. What do they represent? Isis (binary/octet-stream) 1. Egyptian Goddess, Isis 2. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty 3. Goddess of magic, death, rebirth, fertility, motherhood.
BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THESE SUBJECTS: Horus Falcon
BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THESE SUBJECTS: 1. What is this symbol? 2. What does it mean? Ka (binary/octet-stream) 1. Ka 2. Represents the spirit
BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THESE SUBJECTS: Ishtar (Inanna) 1. How is Ishtar depicted? 2. What does she represent? 3. What Era is she from? 4. What style is this? Victory+Stele+Akkadian (binary/octet-stream) 1. Represented as one of the stars carved into the stone. 2. beauty, magic, -> later becomes the goddess of war 3. Akkadian 4. High relief sculpture
BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THESE SUBJECTS: orant figures (praying figures) 1. Give a few examples 1. Stele of Hammurabi 2. Statuette of two worshippers Eug (binary/octet-stream)
BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE THESE SUBJECTS: Gilgamesh * The best known piece of literature from ancient Mesopotamia is the story of THE EPIC OF GILGAMESH, a legendary ruler of Uruk, and his search for immortality. * written in Akkadian language * Neo-Sumerian (3rd Dynasty of Ur)
HISTORICAL TERMS TO KNOW: Neanderthal Member of a group of archaic humans who emerged during the Paleolithic period. They are responsible for creating the cave paintings of that Era.
HISTORICAL TERMS TO KNOW: Cro-Magnon Origins of humanity/form of modern homo-sapiens.
HISTORICAL TERMS TO KNOW: Rosetta stone A script that translated the Egyptian hieroglyphs
HISTORICAL TERMS TO KNOW: Dynasty Family of rulers that descended from the same line
HISTORICAL TERMS TO KNOW: Hyksos People who invaded Egypt and formed the 15th and 16th dynasties of Egypt (Middle and New Kingdom)
HISTORICAL TERMS TO KNOW: Fertile Crescent landmass that is between Turkey and Syria through Iraq to Iran's Zagros Mountain range. Where the fundamental change in human society from hunter-gatherers transformed to that of a stable life of farmers and herders that occurred in Mesopotamia.
1. What is this? 2. What Era is this from? 3. What style is this? Temple+Of+Amen+Re (binary/octet-stream) 1. Temple of Amen Re 2.New Kingdom Egypt, 19th Dynasty 3. made of colonnades (rows of columns), hypostyle hall
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What style is this? Block+Statue (binary/octet-stream) 1. Statue of Horemtabat 2. New Kingdom Egypt, 18th Dynasty 3. Block Statue
Relief+With+Akehnaton (binary/octet-stream) Relief with Akhenaton -> poses are more casual in the Amarna period during Akhenaton's rule. The sun disk with hands represents the ONE GOD Aten. The art looks more realistic.
Thebes+Tomb (binary/octet-stream) Thebes, Tomb of Nebamun -> Hunting scene, the musicians and dancers are drawn completely different. There are now different angles and styles. The long arms were kept but the poses are relaxed now. Era: New Kingdom Egypt, 18th Dynasty
1. What is this called? 2. Describe the style Weighing+Of+The+Souls (binary/octet-stream) 1. Weighing of Soul and Final Judgement before Osiris, Book of the Dead (Illuminated manuscript papyrus scroll) 2. Displays the classic stance, shape, and attitude of traditional Egyptian art with abstract figures and hieroglyphs.
1. What is this? 2. Describe the information known about it. Sumer (binary/octet-stream) 1. White Temple and Ziggurat, Uruk (SUMER/SUMERIAN) 2. Made of mud bricks, Sumerian period Sumerians built temples centuries before Egyptians built their stone pyramids *Home of the legendary Gilgamesh Temples were referred to as “waiting rooms” -> believed their deity would descent from the heavens and appear before the priests in the central hall
1. Where is Uruk? 2. What is known for? 3. What's the name of the famous building there? What else makes it famous? 1. Iraq 2. It was the largest Sumerian city and was an important religious center. 3. White Temple, Uruk -> It was also the home of the legendary, Gilgamesh & the Warka vase -> found in the temple complex of the Sumerian goddess Inanna in the ruins of the ancient city of Uruk. Ziggurat+Of+Ur (binary/octet-stream)
1. Where is Ur? 2. What is known for? 3. What's the name of the famous building there? What else makes it famous? 1. Iraq 2. Ziggurat of Ur 3. Standard of Ur, Sound Box from Lyre, Cylinder Seals (small spools of thread that have reliefs carved into them to be used as signatures.) Cylinder+Seal (binary/octet-stream)
Ishtar (Inanna) 1. Who is she? 2. What does she represent? 3. What are some famous works with her referenced in? Victory+Stele+Akkadian (binary/octet-stream) 1. Sumerian Goddess 2. Goddess of magic, beauty and later became the goddess of War 3. Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, Ishtar Gate (HIGH RELIEF EXAMPLE) (This was dedicated to her by the Babylonians)
Define and recognize a ziggurat A religious temple that has ramps and stairs. *Largest ziggurat in Mesopotamia * Famous for being known as the Tower of Babel to the Hebrews and became the centerpiece of a biblical tale. * Built after the White Temple basically a redesign. Ziggurat+Of+Ur (binary/octet-stream)
What is this? Zig (binary/octet-stream) The Reconstruction of a Ziggurat
Sound+Box+Ur (binary/octet-stream) Sound box from Lyre, Ur. Animals are doing human acts, the Bull-headed figure is Shamash. The art is about a funeral ritual. Example of isocephaly (because the subjects are on the same level)
What is this? Cylinder+Seal (binary/octet-stream) Cylinder seal - small spools of thread with reliefs carved on them for the purpose of making signatures.
Dying+Lioness (binary/octet-stream) 1Dying Lioness, Nineveh
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What are some other works from this era? Reconstruction+Of+Palace+Khorsabad (binary/octet-stream) 1. Reconstruction of Palace at Khorsabad 2. Assyrian 3. fortified citadels, lamassu, dying lioness, hunting lion
NEO-BABYLON Inside+Ishtar Gate+Neo Bablyon (binary/octet-stream) Neo-Bablyon Processional way
NEO BABYLON Ishtar Gate+Wall+Tiles+Repetitive+Design (binary/octet-stream) Tiles found on the Ishtar Gate. Neo-Babylon, Processional way
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What style? Reconstruction+Of+Apadana+Of+Darius+And+Xerxes (binary/octet-stream) 1. Reconstruction of Apadana of Darius and Xerxes 2. Persian 3. colonnade
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What style is it? Bull (binary/octet-stream) 1. A reference to Bull capital found in the Apadana of Persia. This is just one of 36 bull sculptures located in the Apadana complex. 2. Persian 3. In the round sculpture (columns)
Robed+Male+Figure+Mohenjo Daro (binary/octet-stream) Robed male figure, INDUS VALLEY. -> stylized: big eyes, mouth
Mohenjo Daro+Pakistan (binary/octet-stream) Mohenjo-Daro (Pakistan) -> pools, public baths, streets, sewage systems
Describe the Amarna Period of Egypt Point in time where Egyptian art became more realistic -> more relaxed poses. Monotheism was introduced (Aton) as a result of Akhenaton's rule during the New Kingdom. * Tell-el-Amarna = new capital
1. What is this? 2. What is the structure system? Mortuary+Temple (binary/octet-stream) 1. Funerary/Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Deir el Bahari 2. Colonnades, piers, ramps, carved into a rock cliff.
1. What is this? 2. What defines this structure? Temple+Of+Ramses+Ii,+Abu+Simbel,+Egypt,+19+Dynasty (binary/octet-stream) 1. Temple of Ramses II, Abu Simbel 2. Facade statues (Depicts Ramses as being 65 feet tall outside and 32 feet tall inside)
1. Describe the Hittites 2. Give examples of their work 1. Anatolian people that caused the Babylonian people to crumble. * Their architecture consisted of fortress-like megalith stones to make a large city wall. * First ironworkers 2. Hittite rhyton, Lion Gate of Hattusha.
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What does it represent? Warka+Vase (binary/octet-stream) 1. Warka Vase 2. Sumerian, Uruk 3. Narrative relief sculpture that represents libations (liquid offerings)
1. What is this? 2. What does it represent? 3. What Era is it from? Canon+Of+Proportions (binary/octet-stream) 1. Palette of Narmer has two sides -> 2. FRONT: displays Narmer wearing the crown for LOWER Egypt and two animals necks are intertwined in the center symbolizing the unifying of Upper and Lower Egypt. BACK: Narmer is wearing the crown for UPPER Egypt and slays the captured enemy as his allies watch. 3. Predynastic Era
Describe the Predynastic Period of Egypt (Dynasties = 1 and 2) Egypt was divided into two parts Upper and Lower -> King Narmer unified the two together.
Describe the VALLEY OF THE KINGS 1. Where is it located? 2. What is it? 1. Valley of the Kings, Luxor, Egypt 2. a necropolis used to house the bodies and belonging of many pharaohs.
What is the correct order of the Egyptian Dynasties? Make sure to LIST THE DYNASTIES ASSOCIATED WITH THAT ERA! 1. Predynastic/Early Egypt (Dynasties 1 and 2) 2. Old Kingdom (Dynasties 3 and 6) 3. Middle Kingdom (Dynasties 11 - 14) 4. New Kingdom (Dynasties (18 - 20) 5. Amarna Period 6. Late Dynastic Period (Dynasties 26 -30)
History has some shared timelines. What are the events that occurred during the Sumerian, Akkadian, and Old Kingdom of Egypt periods? Sumer: Sumerians established mud-bricks (White Temple of Uruk, Iraq) Akkad: Akkadians produced life-size-hollow metal sculptures using bronze-casting (the guy missing eyes and who is made out of copper and tin) Old Kingdom: 4th Dynasty builds the THREE COLOSSAL PYRAMIDS AT GIZEH -> Khafre, Khufu, Menakaure Great+Pyramids (binary/octet-stream)
History has even more shared timelines. What are the events that occurred during the Babylonian and New Kingdom periods? Babylon and New Kingdom (Egypt) Babylon: Stele of Hammurabi New Kingdom: Akhenaton introducing monotheism -> Aton -> this causes the Amarna Period to begin
History has some shared timelines. What are the events that occurred during the Assyrian and Persian periods? Assyrian: Citadels were guarded by the mythical creature, Lamassu, and they carved large scale reliefs that celebrated their prowess in warfare and hunting Persian: immense palace complex at Persepolis -> Apadana (Audience hall of 10,000 visitors)
1. What is this? 2. What style is it? Parthenon (binary/octet-stream) 1. Parthenon, Greece. 2. Illusionistic, colonnades, looks identical on all sides when it actually bows in the middle, hypostyle hall
1. What is this? 2. What style is this? Pantheon (binary/octet-stream) 1. Pantheon, Rome. 2. Colonnades
Describe the Tell-el-Amarna period Tell-el-Amarna: site of the ruins and tombs of the city of Akhenaton, Upper Egypt. Images of Akhenaton (colossal statue), Nefertiti (bust), Tutankhamen (death mask, the gold inner coffin) Akhenaton (binary/octet-stream)
What is the correct order of the Mesopotamian timeline? 1. Sumerian (Uruk, Ur) 2. Akkadian 3. Neo-Sumerian (3rd Dynasty of Ur) 4. Babylonian 5. Hittite 6. Assyrian 7. Neo-Babylonian 8. Persian
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What style is it? Lion+Gate (binary/octet-stream) 1. Lions Gate of Hattusha, Turkey 2. Hittites 3. High relief sculpture
1. What is this? 2. What Era does it come from? Rhyton (binary/octet-stream) 1. Rhyton - hand-held vase used for libations 2. Hittites
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it? 3. What type of artwork is it? relief, sculpture, in the round, etc. Stele+Sumerian (binary/octet-stream) 1. Sumerian tablet 2. Sumerian 3. Cuneiform
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What type of artwork is this? Indus+Valley+Yoga+Figure (binary/octet-stream) 1. Seal with a seated figure in a yogic posture 2. Indus Valley 3. It is a relief impression pressed into a clay tablet.
1. What is this? 2. Describe the information known about it. Standard+Of+Ur (binary/octet-stream) 1. Standard of Ur. 2. Box decorated on all sides Example of isocephaly -> everyone is on the same level King is the largest so the hierarchy of scale is still in play here One of the MOST famous Sumerian arts One side: War side shows the battlefield victory where the figures vary depending on their importance Second side: PEACE SIDE -> banquet with a harp player and a singer, all of the humans are standing or seating in composite views while the animals are in strict profile. (looking to the side)
1. What is this? 2. Describe the information known about it. What's the architecture? system? 3. What Era does it belong in? Stonehenge (binary/octet-stream) 1. Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, England 2. Used for: Rituals and celebrations, calendar * Architecture: Megalith structure * System: Post and lintel system of construction (made up columns and dolmens) -> tall one-piece pillars (monoliths) are held up/supported by lintels (horizontal stone blocks used to span an opening) 3. Neolithic Era
1. What is this? 2. What Era does it belong to? 2+Bison (binary/octet-stream) 1. 2 Bison, cave painting, France 2. Paleolithic (focuses mainly on animals)
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it? 3. What style is it? Bison+Turned+Head (binary/octet-stream) 1. Bison with turned head, cave painting, France 2. Paleolithic 3. Low-relief
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? Spotted+Horses (binary/octet-stream) 1. Spotted horses, cave painting 2. Paleolithic
1. What is this? 2. What Era is from? Lascaux+France+Cave (binary/octet-stream) 1. Cave painting, Lascaux, Dordogne, France 2. Paleolithic
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? Lascaux+France+Cave+2 (binary/octet-stream) 1. Cave paintings, Lascaux, Dordogne, France 2. Paleolithic
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. Any additional information? Plastered+Skull (binary/octet-stream) 1. Plastered skull, Jericho, Palestine (Jordan) 2. Neolithic 3. Earliest sculpture of the human face/figure during the Neolithic period.
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. Additional information? Plasted+Human+Figure (binary/octet-stream) 1. A plastered human figure, Jericho, Palestine (Jordan) 2. Neolithic 3. Earliest sculpture of the human face/figure during the Neolithic period.
True or false, Persian's invented the ancient writing known as cuneiform. FALSE, it was Sumerian.
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. Additional information? Victory+Stele+Akkadian (binary/octet-stream) 1. Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, Nineveh, Iran 2. Akkadian 3. Three sun/star carvings -> one = sun god, the other = venus/Ishtar/Inanna * The Akkadian artist portrayed the king and his soldiers in composite views and by playing a frontal two-horned helmet on Naram-Sin’s profile head. * There is actually a landscape for the story -> this was a bold rejection of the millennium-old compositional formula of telling a story in a series of horizontal registers.
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What style is it? 4. Additional information? Ishtar+Gate (binary/octet-stream) 1. Ishtar Gate, Iraq 2. Neo-Babylonian 3. Glazed brick reliefs of Marduk’s dragon and Adad’s bull 4. constructed by King Nebuchadnezzar II, tiles have lions, dragons, daisies IMAGE TO THE LEFT = INTERIOR OF ISHTAR GATE. Interior+Of+Ishtar+Gate (binary/octet-stream)
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. Describe it Hunting+Lions (binary/octet-stream) 1. Hunting Lions, Nineveh 2. Assyrian 3. The subject is depicted to be more realistic, naturalism is being viewed in the lines
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What's the style? Dying+Lioness (binary/octet-stream) 1. Dying Lioness, Nineveh 2. Assyrian 3. Alabaster bas-relief (bas = low)
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What style is this? 4. Additional information Apadana (binary/octet-stream) 1. Apadana of Persepolis, Persia 2. Persian 3. Audience-hall 4. Persepolis: The most important source of knowledge about Persian art and architecture is the ceremonial and administrative complex within the citadel which was built by Darius I and Xerxes. * Persian sculpture styles: forms = more rounded, project more from the background. * Bull capital is located in the Apadana/Palace of Darius I
What is the correct order of the Mesopotamian timeline? Susan Always Knows Never Shave Bald Heads As Sally Nicked Bob's Patches. 1. Sumerian 2. Akkadian 3. Neo-Sumerian (3rd Dynasty of Ur) 4. Babylonian 5. Hittites 6. Assyrians 7. Neo-Babylonians 8. Persians
What is the major importance of the Sumerian timeline? Sumerians: * Invented the City-state(City = whole country and is politically independent from the lands surrounding it) * Ancient writing was first discovered, cuneiform.
SUMERIANS What are the major artworks of this period? 1. Warka vase (Libation sculpture) 2. Two worshippers (Orant figure) 3. White Temple of Uruk (Gilgamesh, temple) 4. Ziggurat of Ur (Tower of Babel) 5. Standard of Ur 6. Soundbox from Lyre, Ur 7. Cylinder seals (signatures with spools of thread with reliefs carved into them) 8. Cuneiform Sumerian tablet
What is the major importance of the Akkadians? Akkadian Art: 1. Victory Stele of Naram-sin (stylized/symbolism) 2. Head of an Akkadian ruler, Nineveh 3. Stele (a big slab of stone with reliefs on it) 4. Rosetta stone
What is the major importance of the Neo-Sumerians? Lagash = most important city-state that stayed independent of the Gutians rule -> Gutians caused the Akkadian empire to fall.
What are the important artworks from the Neo-Sumerian period? 1. Gudea (statues that are always seen praying, wearing a bowl-crown) 2. Standing Gudea = Votive figure (sculpted to honor the Gods, holds a vase as a libation) 3. Seated Gudea = orant figure (praying) Gudea+Standing+Libation (binary/octet-stream)
1. What is the major importance of the Babylonians? 2. What are the important artworks from this period? 1. Babylonian: * Babylonians take over Mesopotamia * First written codes of law 2. Artwork: *Stele of Hammurabi = votive figure, shamash the sun god is presented, twisted proportions and foreshortening) Hammura1 (image/jpeg)
Define foreshortening a technique used by artists to create a kind of optical illusion simply by making lines shorter or angling the perspective in a certain way.
What is the major importance of the Hittites? * They were Anatolian people who wanted others to know they were powerful. * Used big statues as a way to show power * They were the first ironworkers
What are the major artworks of the Hittites? Architecture: fortress-like megalith stones that were used to make a large city wall. ARTWORK: * Hittite Rhyton = a horn-shaped tube with an animal on the end for libations) * Lion Gate of Hattusha, Turkey Lion+Gate (binary/octet-stream)
What is the major importance of the Assyrians? Assyrians: * Cruelty in warfare * fortified citadels ->Kings saw the citadels as important symbols of power and grandeur(splendor and impressiveness, especially of appearance or style)
What are the major works of art from the Assyrian period? 1. Reconstruction of the Palace at Khorsabad 2. Lamassu -> Assyrian mythical creature that is an example of illusionism (2 different reliefs depending on point of view), 3. Ashurbanipal, Hunting Lions, Nineveh 4. Dying Lioness, Nineveh Hunting+Lions (binary/octet-stream)
What is the major importance of the Neo-Babylonians? The creation of the Ishtar Gate by King Nebuchadnezzar II Ishtar+Gate (binary/octet-stream)
What is the major importance of the Persians? Persians: * King Cyrus takes over Neo-Babylon * Architecture is loose and open, separated by streets) * Zoroastrian religious was established -> on-going battle between good and evil)
What are the major artworks from the Persians? 1. Apadana of Persepolis (a Persian audience hall where the king received 10,000 visitors) 2. Bull capital (columns of the Apadana with bulls carved into them -> example of sculpture in the round and is a sign of power) 3. Reconstruction of Apadana of Darius I and Xerxes. Reconstruction+Of+Apadana+Of+Darius+And+Xerxes (binary/octet-stream)
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What type of artwork is it? Prince+Ankh Haf (binary/octet-stream) 1. Prince Ankh-haf 2. 4th Dynasty Egyptian (Old Kingdom) 3. Limestone Bust Sculpture Rather than a stylized representation, the face is of an individual.
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What type of artwork is it Geese+Of+Meydum (binary/octet-stream) 1. Geese of Meidum 2. Old Kingdom, Egypt, 4th Dynasty 3. Realism, profile, Tempera on papyrus paper
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What type of artwork is it? Menkaure+And+Khamererenbty (binary/octet-stream) 1. King Menkaure (Mycerinus) and Queen Khamererenbty 2. Old Kingdom, Egypt, 4th Dynasty 3. Frontal sculpture
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What type of artwork is it? Seated+Scribe (binary/octet-stream) 1. Seated scribe 2. Old Kingdom, Egypt, 4th Dynasty 3. Painted limestone statue ( displayed the on-going struggle between stylization and realism)
What is the style of the Lamassu in Assyrian art? Lamassu (binary/octet-stream) 1. Illusionism (shows 2 legs from the front, 4 from the side, but has 5 legs in total -> 2 different reliefs depending on your point of view) 2. alabaster partly in the round sculpture but is essentially high relief.
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What type of artwork is it? Prince+Rahotep+And+Wife (binary/octet-stream) 1. Prince Rahotep and his wife Nofret 2. Old Kingdom, Egypt 4th Dynasty 3. Painted limestone statues, found at their mastabas
1. What is this? 2. What Era is it from? 3. What type of artwork is it? Block+Statue+New+Kingdom (binary/octet-stream) 1. Senmut with Princess Nefrua 2. New Kingdom, Egypt, 18th Dynasty 3. Block-statue
Give some examples that use alabaster, make sure to list the period that goes with it! 1. Warka vase (Sumerian) 2. Lamassu (Assyrian) 3. Dying lioness Warka+Vase (binary/octet-stream)
Give some examples that use faience, list the periods that go with it! 1. Ushabti, Faience hippopotamus (RECOGNIZE IT BY A BLUE-GREEN MATERIAL STATUE) Ushanti (binary/octet-stream)
1. What is this? 2. What era is it from? 3. What style is it? Hippo+Faience (binary/octet-stream) 1. Faience Hippopotamus 2. Middle Kingdom, 12th and 13th Dynasty, Egypt 3. Faience statuette
1. What is this? 2. What era is it from? 3. Who designed it? Step Pyramid+Of+King+Zoser,+Saqqara (binary/octet-stream) 1. Step-Pyramid of Zoser, Saqqara 2. Old Kingdom, 3rd Dynasty 3. imhotep King Zoser/Djoser's architect
Define engaged columns Column inserted into the wall (can be seen at the Step-Pyramid of Djoser) Engaged+Columns (binary/octet-stream)
What is the purpose of Mortuary/Funerary temples such as the Funerary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut? Mortuary+Temple (binary/octet-stream) It is meant for on-going worship of the dead by the living.
Define serdab a chamber inside a mastaba containing a statue of the deceased where their soul would be in case they didn't pass on to the afterlife.
Give some examples of in the round sculptures that we have covered. 1. Bull capital (Persian) columns of the Palace of Darius I. 2. Greek, Warrior race A statue. 3. Seated frontal statue of King Khafre (Old Kingdom, 4th Dynasty ) 4. Venus of Willendorf, Austria (Neolithic)
Give some examples of high relief that we have covered. 1. Victory Stele of Naram-sin, Nineveh (Akkadian) 2. Lamassu (Assyrian) 3. William West Facade 4. Lions Gate of Hattusa (Hittite) High+Relief (binary/octet-stream)
Give some examples of bas-relief/low reliefs that we have covered. 1. Ti watching a Hippopotamus hunt (Old Kingdom, 5th Dynasty Egypt) 2. Dying Lioness (Assyrian) 3. Venus of Laussel, France (Paleolithic) Dying+Lioness (binary/octet-stream)
Give some examples of stele works that we have covered. 1. Stele of Hammurabi (Babylonian) 2. Victory Stele of Naram-sin, Nineveh (Akkadian) 3. Rosetta stone Victory+Stele+Akkadian (binary/octet-stream)
Briefly describe the Epic of Gilgamesh * Becomes friends with his enemy Enkidu (originally sent to kill Gilgamesh) and the two find a way to better each other. * Gilgamesh is searching for immortality after the death of Enkidu but was told to accept his mortality. * King of Uruk, 3rd Dynasty Ur * Relates to the White Temple of Uruk