PAST PAPER Q&A, MEDIA SOCIO

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A-level A2 revision guides (Crime & Deviance) Flashcards on PAST PAPER Q&A, MEDIA SOCIO, created by drewjonik on 01/28/2015.
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Question Answer
Identify & briefly explain 3 ways in which governments seek to influence or control the output of the mass media. (9marks) 1 Mark for each 3 listed: • control over the BBC licence fee • making ownership of satellite dishes illegal • the Official Secrets Act • control over issuing commercial broadcasting licences • official regulators • censorship.
Using material from Item C and elsewhere, assess the view that the selection & presentation of the news ‘is inevitably partial and biased’ (18marks) This may include concepts and issues such as: gatekeeping; agenda setting; social construction; ideology; news values; hierarchy of credibility; social; organisational & time constraints; media ownership; influence of the new media; hegemony; folk devils & moral panics. Sources may include Redhead; Borsay; Fawbert; Hall; GMG; Cohen; Manning; Uttley; Schleissenger; Edwards and Cromwell.
‘What is shown by the mass media will not make people violent, but it may lead people to believe that we live in a violent society.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view? (33 marks) Concepts and issues such as: folk devils and moral panics; desensitisation; copycat violence; hypodermic syringe model; selective exposure; selective perception; selective retention; two-step flow; homogeneity; uses and gratifications; reception analysis; new media; cultural effects.
‘What is shown by the mass media will not make people violent, but it may lead people to believe that we live in a violent society.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view? (33 marks) following sources and/or relevant alternative ones: Hall; Young; Gerbner; Watson; Hargrave; Blumler and McQuail; Katz and Lazarsfeld; Charlton et al; Belson; Gauntlett; Lea and Young; Morrison; Feshbach and Singer; Morgan; Held; Gunter.
‘Media representations of minority ethnic groups are problematic and often negative.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view? (33 marks) Concepts and issues such as: stereotyping; negativity; moral panics; stigmatisation; capitalist ideology; Islamophobia; demonisation; dependency; tokenism; symbolic annihilation; ghettoisation and hegemony.
Media representations of minority ethnic groups are problematic and often negative.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view? (33 marks) following sources and/or relevant alternative ones: Van Dijk; Akinti; Back; Zylinska; Watson; Hall et al; Philo and Beattie; Cashmore; Pearson; Mitchell; Best and Kellner; GMG.
Identify and briefly explain three ways in which the mass media may contribute to ‘cultural imperialism’. (9marks) 1 mark for each 3 listed: • the global spread of programming • the internet spreading western values • advertising and fashion spreading global brands • the growth of transnational media corporations • the growth of new media.
Using material from Item C and elsewhere, assess the role of the mass media in the representation of gender. (18marks) May include concepts and issues such as: ideology; patriarchy; economic, physical, social and organisational constraints; media ownership; influence of the new media; hegemony; stereotyping; glass ceilings; power; social construction; cult of femininity; male gaze; beauty myth.
Using material from Item C and elsewhere, assess the role of the mass media in the representation of gender. (18marks) Sources may include: Tuchman et al; Gallagher; Ferguson; Gilmore; McRobbie; Wolf; Orbach; Hamilton and Waller; Tebbel; Wilkinson; Gill; Easthope; Mort.
‘The new media have taken control of media content away from the owners and editors and placed it in the hands of the users.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view? (33 marks) Concepts and issues such as convergence, compression, interactivity, global village, social interaction, media imperialism, digital divide, collective intelligence, domination, elite power, popular culture, hegemony, ideology, consumer sovereignty, competition, blogging, tweeting, cultural pessimists and neophiliacs
‘The new media have taken control of media content away from the owners and editors and placed it in the hands of the users.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view? (33 marks) Sources may include: Curran and Seaton; Strinati; Garrod; Boyle; McLuhan; Cornford and Robins; Itzoe; Jenkins; Li and Kirkup.
Assess the view that the owners of mass media corporations control media output and serve mainly ruling-class interests. (33 marks) Concepts and issues such as hegemony, ideology, ideological state apparatus, domination, agendasetting, gate-keeping, market forces, news values, pluralism, neo-liberalism, manipulation and instrumentalism.
Assess the view that the owners of mass media corporations control media output and serve mainly ruling-class interests. (33 marks) Sources may include: Bagdikian; Miliband; Marx; Gramsci; Doyle; Curran; Whale; Tunstall and Palmer.
Identify and briefly explain three ways in which globalisation has changed the role of the media over the past 20 years or so. (9 marks) 1 mark for each 3 listed: • development of global media corporations • media focus has become more international • development of the 24 hour agenda • spread of culture globally via the media • manufacturing for mass multi-cultural media markets.
Using material from Item C and elsewhere, assess the view that the mass media represent young people as a problem group. (18 marks) May include concepts and issues such as ideology; economic, physical, social and organisational constraints; influence of the new media; hegemony; stereotyping; social construction; minority ethnic groups; youth culture; labelling; style; popular culture; folk devils; moral panics; lifestyle; identity; etc
Using material from Item C and elsewhere, assess the view that the mass media represent young people as a problem group. (18 marks) Sources may include Wayne; Cohen; HeintzKnowles; Newman; Lee et al; Cuddy and Fiske; Hebdidge.
Assess postmodernist contributions to our understanding of the role of the mass media in society today. (33 marks) Concepts and issues such as instability, style over substance, media-saturated society, interactivity, global village, sign objects, social interaction, multiple realities, popular culture, simulation, identity and choice, metanarrative, reception analysis, cultural pessimists and neophiliac
Assess postmodernist contributions to our understanding of the role of the mass media in society today. (33 marks) Sources may include: Strinati; Lyotard; Baudrillard; Miller; Philo; Poster; Thompson; Lull.
Assess the view that the news is a social construction. (33 marks) Concepts and issues such as headlining, different types of news, different news outlets, news as pastiche, audiences, hegemony, ideology, ideological state apparatus, domination, agenda-setting, gate-keeping, deadlines, market forces, news values, pluralism, manipulation, bias, churnalism, hierarchy of credibility, primary definers and propaganda
Assess the view that the news is a social construction. (33 marks) Sources may include: McChesney; Manning; Hall; Herman and Chomsky; Bagdikian; Couldry et al; Davies; Edwards and Cromwell; Dutton; Galtung and Ruge; Chandler; Morley.
Identify and briefly explain three ways in which women working in mass media organisations today are disadvantaged. (9 marks) 1 mark for each 3 listed: • women are appointed for their looks, not their intelligence or abilities • glass ceilings predominate • patriarchal attitudes still predominate in media corporations • lack of role models • men earn more than women • older women are not recruited.
Using material from Item C and elsewhere, assess the view that the mass media represent many groups in stereotypical ways. (18 marks) May include concepts and issues such as ideology; economic, physical, social and organisational constraints; influence of the new media; idealised families; stereotyping; social construction; minority ethnic groups; white eye; folk devils; moral panics; patriarchy; male gaze
Using material from Item C and elsewhere, assess the view that the mass media represent many groups in stereotypical ways. (18 marks) Sources may include: Williams; Tuchman; Brundsman; Anderson; Kibley; van Zomen; Van Djilks; Hall; Cohen; Young; Karpf; Cumberbatch and Negrine; Klein; O’Sullivan and Jewkes; Dyer; Butsch; etc.
‘The mass media do not control their consumers; the consumers control the media.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view of the mass media today? (33 marks) Concepts and issues such as Ofcom, uses and gratifications, hypodermic syringe, two-step flow, selective perception, selective retention, desensitisation, catharsis, the uses and influence of the new media, digitalisation, interactivity, social media, democratisation, social construction, agenda setting and gate-keeping
‘The mass media do not control their consumers; the consumers control the media.’ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view of the mass media today? (33 marks) Sources may include: Buckingham; Cohen; Cumberbatch; Dworkin; Gerbner; Katz and Lazarsfield; Klapper; McCabe and Martin; Orbach; Philo; Strinati; Wolf; Wood; Young.
Assess the view that the mass media are helping to create a single global popular culture. (33 marks) Concepts and issues such as compression, convergence, cultural pessimists, high culture, dumbing down, cultural imperialism, globalisation, choice, diversity, cultural homogenisation, glocal, neophiliacs, mass culture, cocacolonisation and participatory culture
Assess the view that the mass media are helping to create a single global popular culture. (33 marks) Sources may include: Boyle; Cornford and Robins; Curran and Seaton; Fenton; Flew; Giddens; Harvey; Jenkins; Marcuse; Marx; Strinati.
Identify and briefly explain three arguments put forward by sociologists to support their claim that exposure to media violence does not make people violent. (9 marks) 1 mark for each 3 listed: • many studies have been conducted under artificial conditions • violence is an unclear concept • ‘terror for pleasure’ is not a corrupting influence • catharsis • the audience are active not passive • sensitises people to the consequences of violence • no causal effect • heterogeneous audiences.
Using material from Item C and elsewhere, assess sociological views of the selection and presentation of the news. (18 marks) This may include concepts and issues such as: ideology; economic, physical, social and organisational constraints; news values; news diary; role of press agencies; public relations; 24-hour news; influence of the new media; hegemony; power; social construction; folk devils; moral panics; allocative control; gatekeeping; agenda-setting; selective reporting; pluralism; neo-pluralism.
Using material from Item C and elsewhere, assess sociological views of the selection and presentation of the news. (18 marks) Sources may include Bagdikian; Borsay; Cohen; Couldry et al; Chandler; Davies; Edwards and Cromwell; Fiske; Furedi; Galtung & Ruge; GMG; Manning; McChesney; McQuail; Peace; Redhead; Rock; Thomas; Thornton; Young.
Evaluate the contribution of Marxist theories to our understanding of the organisation and role of the mass media in the world today. (33 marks) Concepts and issues such as: ISAs; ideology; concentration of ownership; globalisation; mass culture; domination; oppression; interactivity; neo-Marxism; pluralism; vertical integration; horizontal integration; diversification; global village; sign objects; social interaction; multiple realities; popular culture; agenda-setting; gatekeeping; allocative control; identity and choice; metanarrative; reception analysis; cultural pessimists and neophiliacs
Evaluate the contribution of Marxist theories to our understanding of the organisation and role of the mass media in the world today. (33 marks) Sources may include: Althusser; Boyle; Cornford and Robins; Curran; Curran and Seaton; Doyle; Haste; GMG; Jenkins; Marcuse, Marx; Miliband; Tunstall and Palmer; Whale; etc.
Evaluate the impact of the growth and increasing diversity of the new media on society today. (33 marks) Concepts and issues such as: convergence; compression; interactivity; collective intelligence; generational divide; digital divide; neophiliacs; cultural pessimists; conglomerates; elites; hegemony; global village; ideology; ideological state apparatus; domination; agenda-setting; gatekeeping; deadlines; market forces; pluralism; social media; mobile technology and hierarchy of credibility
Evaluate the impact of the growth and increasing diversity of the new media on society today. (33 marks) Sources may include: Cornford and Robins; Curran; Curran and Seaton; Fenton; Flew; Garrod; Harvey; Jenkins; McCluhan; Seaton; Strinati; etc
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