Epistemology

Stella FaizBakhsh
Flashcards by Stella FaizBakhsh, updated 4 months ago
Stella FaizBakhsh
Created by Stella FaizBakhsh 4 months ago
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Philosophy - knowledge

Resource summary

Question Answer
Three types of knowledge? Ability/practical - HOW Acquaintance - OF Proposition - THAT
Analytic truth True in virtue of the meaning of the words
Synthetic truth True in virtue of how the world is
Denial of analytic truth vs synthetic truth Analytic truth: logical contradiction Synthetic truth: no logical contradiction
Necessary truths? Contingent truths? Necessary - must be true therefore analytical Contingent - might not have been true therefore synthetic
A Priori knowledge Knowledge acquired without experience of the external world (thought alone)
A Posteriori knowledge Knowledge ONLY acquired from experience of external world
GENERAL belief - relationship of analytical/synthetic truths with a priori/a posteriori knowledge Most a priori knowledge is knowledge of analytical truths Most a posteriori knowledge is knowledge of synthetic truths
Relationship of analytical/synthetic truths with a priori/a posteriori knowledge in RATIONALISM? Some synthetic truths are a priori
Relationship of analytical/synthetic truths with a priori/a posteriori knowledge in KNOWLEDGE EMPIRICISM? All knowledge of synthetic truths acquired a posteriori
Two types of knowledge in Hume's fork? Relations of ideas (i.e. analytic, a priori) Matters of fact (i.e. synthetic, a posteriori)
Did Hume believe in knowledge empiricism or rationalism? Knowledge empiricism
What is a relation of ideas? either intuitively or demonstratively certain (i.e. an analytical truth) and discoverable by the mere operation of thought, without dependence on what is anywhere existent in the universe (hence known a priori)
A similarity between analytic truth and relation of ideas Both cannot be denied without a logical contradiction
What type of truth + knowledge are matters of fact? Synthetic truth - the contrary of a matter of fact does not create a contradiction A posteriori - require observation to be established
Innate knowledge? A priori or a posteriori? Knowledge one is born with, therefore a priori.
Does innatism support rationalism or knowledge empiricism? Rationalism - synthetic truths and/or analytical truth known a priori
Plato's argument for innate knowledge? Meno's slave not taught geometry, therefore does not know geometry. Socrates draws 2x2ft squares. Socrates asks Meno a series of questions. Leads Meno to realise area is 4 feet, despite having no knowledge of geometry.
Three criteria for a proposition? 1) A justification for the belief. 2) Must be true + correspond to reality. 3) Must be believed.
Tripartite definition of knowledge? Justified, true, believed (JTB)
Problems with Tripartite JTB? Accidental correctness Unreliability of the senses Limitations of reason Infinite regress of justifications
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