Pathology Test

tlge
Flashcards by tlge, updated more than 1 year ago
tlge
Created by tlge over 7 years ago
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Chapter One and Two

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What is electrons replace photons, electromagnetic lenses replace glass lenses and imagines are viewed on a screen rather than through an eyepiece. For the viewing of the internal cell. Transmission Electron Microscope
What uses a focused beam of high-energy electrons to generate a variety of signals at the surface of solid specimens. For viewing the surface of the cell. Scanning Electron Microscope
A electron microscope can magnify up to? 40 thousand times
What are the three parts of the cell? Cell membrane, Cytoplasm and Nucleus
What are the three types of RNA? transfer RNA- tRNA messenger RNA- mRNA ribosomal RNA- rRNA
What is ribonucleic acid; single strand, ribose (sugar), and has 4 Nucleotide bases ACUG (Adenine, Cytsonie, Uracil, and Guanine) RNA
What is deoxyribonucleic acid; double helix, dioxide-riboes, has 4 nucleotide bases ATGC Adenine (A) pair with (T) Guanine (G) pair with (C) DNA
Where DNA is produced and it unwinds to make RNA? Nucleolus
What are the functions of the three RNA's? Becomes part of ribsomal What is read by the ribsomal transfers amino acids
What takes place in the cell nucleus by taking one strand of DNA (was a double helix) unwinding the ribbon and from that ribbon make RNA. Transcription
What is it when the RNA messenger, transfers and the ribsomal wiggle out through the pores of the nuclear membrane and get into the cytoplasm. Translation
What are the two steps of protein synthesis? Transcription and Transcription
What RNA is out of the cytoplasm has a large sub-unit and a small sub-unit; and when it fits together its functional? rRNA (ribosomal)
What RNA is produced in the nucleus through the process of transcription; it has ATCG, it gets ran through the ribosomal, and read the code? mRNA (messenger)
What RNA takes every three of the bases code for a particular amino acid; and moves the amino acids? tRNA transfer
How many amino acids are in the body? 20
What is the difference between essential and non-essential amino acids? Some amino acids the body makes on its own and the others you have to get in your diet.
Every three tRNA transfer base code is for a particular amino acid is called a? codon (green, red, and etc...)
What matches up with each codon? anti-condo
Hb-O2 blood carries oxygen from the respiratory organs (lungs or gills) to the rest of the body and collects the resultant carbon dioxide to bring it back to the respiratory organs to be dispensed from the organism; this is called? Reversible Affinity
What are some proteins in your body? Muscle, Keratin, Hemoglobin, and Catalyses
What is the function of an enzyme? catalyses (are enzymes) which are proteins are used to speed up chemical reaction.
Where does transcription takes place? Nucleus
Where does translation takes place? Cytoplasm
How many cells are in the body? 75 trillion
How many types of cells are in the body? 200
What are the two major groups that the cells can be divided into? Somatic and Sex cells
What are the sex cells? Oocytes and Sperm
How many chromosomes does a sex cell have? 23 chromosomes aka Haploid N#
What are somatic cells? Hair, skin, and your liver cells and everything else.
How many chromosomes does a somatic cell have? 46 chromosomes aka Diploid 2N#
How nucleus do most cell have? One
What is lacking a cell nucleus? Anucleolate
What is all of the material from the nuclear envelope in the nuclear membrane and from the nucleus itself? Cytoplasm
What does organelle mean? Little organ (specific structure and specific function within a cell)
What is the sum of all chemical reactions taking place in the body are called? Metabolism
Most of the regulatory mechanizes in the body are? Negative feedback type (maintaining homeostasis)
The liver,adrenal gland and leudig cells are locate in what endoplasmic reticulum? Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
Pinocytosis vs. Phagocytosis A liquid being brought into the cell (it forms a sac) compared to the engulfing of other cells of solid particle
What are cell membranes are made up of? Selectively permeable, a phospholipid bilayer and proteins about 50/50
Most of the lipids are 80%? Phospholipid
Proteins, lipids and carbohydrates are the bilipid layer of the? Plasma membrane
The complex function of the bilipid layer serves as receptors, transducers of signals and also this? Adhesion Molecules
What can imbalance in homeostasis can cause? Cell Injury and Cell Death
What are the three Integration of Cell Functions? Autocrine stimulation (local) Paracrine stimulation (local) Endocrine stimulation (circulating)
What Integration of Cell Function secretions from the cell may attach to the cell's own surface receptors, providing autocrine stimulation; that does not get into the bloodstream? Autocrine stimulation (Local)
What Integration of Cell Function closely adjacent cells act on each other the release of, mediators from cell and their uptake by another; and does not get into the bloodstream? Paracrine stimulation (Local)
What Integration of Cell Function hormones secreted by endocrine cells reach target cells via the blood; it may involve cells in several anatomically distinct organs? Endocrine stimulation (Circulating)
What is a state of stability or equilibrium between cells and fluids in the human body fluids? Homeostasis
What might alter equilibrium between the cells and their environment? External stimuli
The increased or decreased functional adaptations are? Reversible
Once response passes beyond the point of no return, there are two area were damage is irreversible? Nucleus and the cell membrane
What is determined by the reactivity of each cell and the ability of the cells to respond to increased demands or stimuli? Steady State
There are three types of filaments that are classified by? Size
What is a filament composed of actin and myosin and measuring 5nm in diameter? Microfilaments
What is a filament named so because their diameter 10nm is made up of Epiththelial, Muscle and Nerve? Intermediate filaments
What is a filament that are 22 nm thick and composed of tublin? Microtubules (microvillin of the cell)
When mitochondia migrates to base of the cell to provide energy needed for? Active Transport
What is the cell membrane is made of? Lipids, Proteins and Carbohydrates
What percent of the cell membrane is made of phospholipids lipids? 80%
The phospholipid head is Hydrophilic it goes in and out of the cell and the tail stays inside the cell not touching the water which means? Hydrophobic
What are the two types of protein? Integral and Peripheral
What proteins can attach and detach of the surface of the cell membrane? Peripheral proteins
Hormones and Cell ID markers are protein? Receptors; help link one cell to another
What is tissue compatibility? Histocompatible
Anaerobic and Aerobic are the two types of oxidizing reactions that take place in? Mitochondria cellular respiration
Anaerobic vs. Aerobic Anaerobic is without oxygen and aerobic involves oxygen.
Is anaerobic or aerobic more efficient? Aerobic; has more ATP produced per each molecule.
Reversible cell injury happens by that pH of the cell becomes acidic, slows down the entire cell metabolism; the consequent dilation and fragmentation of RER and the loss of membrane-attached ribosomes result in decreased protein synthesis, and swollen mitochondria reduced energy production; less efficient anaerobic glyoclysis that results in? Excessive production of lactic acid
Increased Autophagy? Hydrolysis Lysosome
What is surface modification, hair like, very uniform in structure, function is absorption, found in the intestinal tract; small intestines? Normal microvilli
What are the structures that join adjacent cells together; spot weld? Desmosomes
Where active transport comes from; powered by ATP, and mitochondria is there to produce a? Response (voltage flow across the cell membrane)
The sodium pumps in the cell membrane; pumping sodium Na+/potassium K+ on the inside and the outside of the cell; with + and - ions on either side of the membrane determines the? Membrane potential
Damage to the nucleus is either Dissolved, Fragmented or? Condensed
Chromosomes are made in? Chromatin fibers
What are low levels of oxygen to cells and tissues? Hypoxia
What is oxygen deficiency; no oxygen available? Anoxia
What is some major cause of hypoxia or anoxia? Interruption of oxygen supply Inhibition of blood oxygenation in the lungs Inadequate transport of oxygen in circulation Inhibition of cellular respiration
In hypoxia and anoxia the Respiratory and Vascular systems have to work together, if either system fails the person will die due to? Cellular damage
What are the oxygen radicals that can cause cell injury in a myocardial infarction hydrogen peroxide and? Superoxide
Swollen microvilli are the the consequence of an influx of water in the? Cytoplasm
Invagination of the cell membrane gives rise to fluid-filled cytoplasmic vacuoles that account, in part, for the change known as? Vascular degeneration
Vascular degeneration is the swelling of mitochondria and dilated of the? Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Lose contact with adjacent cells at the site of cell-to-cell junctions, such as desmosomes? Swollen cells
How many miles of blood vessels do you have in the body? 60 thousand miles
What is the blood supply to a tissue? Postperfusion
When establish blood flood to tissue has already been damaged and more will form to create additional damage this is known as? Free Radicals
Inactivate cytoplasmic enzymes are heavy metals like mercury are what kind of toxins? Direct toxins
On ingestion it is metabolized to Carbon Tetrachloride which acts as a toxin free radical, damaging cell membranes. Carbon tricholoride
What can cause the disease process? Pathogens
What pathogens that creates toxic materials; will injury the cell? Bacteria
What pathogens go into the cell and take over the machinery of the cell? Virus
What is wasting away? Atrophy
What is an enlargement in an organ or body part caused by an increase in cell size? Hypertrophy
What is the end result of activation complement system? Enhanced phagocytosis; binding of bacteria Basil dilation; enhances inflammation Cell lysis; perforated the cell membrane
What is an enlargement of an organ as a result of an increased number of cells? Hyperplasia
What are mediators of inflammation that come from phospholipids? Arachidonic Acid (two forms Leukotrienes and Prostaglandins)
What is a change of one cell type to another? Metaplasia
What form of arachidonic acid increases permeability of a blood vessel? Luekotrienes (ex. bronchial spasms)
What is programmed cell death? Apoptosis
What form of arachidonic acid bring about basil dilation increases permeability of a blood vessel, pain and fever? Prostaglandins
What is an accumulation of residual bodies eventually the White Blood Cells will die? Intracellular accumulations
What are the 5 groups of White Blood Cells; that have single nucleus' with multiple lobe? Neutrophils Eosinophil Basophil Lymphocytes Monocytes
What is the "brains" of the cell' containing the genetics material and thus controlling the major functions of each cell? Nucleus
What type of white blood cell turns on inflammation in bloodstream and turns into mast cells when they leave the bloodstream; histamine is the granules; causes basil dilation and increases permeability? Basophil (5-10% of WBC)
What is the Morphological changes in tissue caused by cell death? Necrosis
What type of White blood cell is a granular leukocytes part of the B and T cells, live for decades; involved in the immune response of the body and can leave the bloodstream and keep functioning? Lymphocytes (25% of WBC)
What is abnormal growth of cell or organ? Dysplasia
What white blood cells are the most abundant type of white blood cells, first to arrive at infection site? Neutrophils (70% of WBC)
What is an an iron-rich pigment that is a product of red cell hemolysis.? Hemosiderosis
What white blood cell is a granular leukocytes when they leave the bloodstream become macrocytes that eat up the dead bacteria and neutrophils; high phagocytic? Monocytes (3-8% of WBC)
Shat is an accumulation of inhaled coal particle in the lungs? Anthracosis
What white blood cell turns off inflammation; phagocytic, eats up parasite worms and antigen antibody agad complex? Eosinophil (2-4% of WBC)
What is a form of death of tissue, usually caused by loss of blood supply, bacterial invasion, and subsequent putrefaction? Gangrene
What is leakage of fluid from the vessels into the interstitial spaces? Transudate
What is deposition of calcium salts in tissue? Calcification
What is abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues of body cavities? Edema
What is apoptosis in the fetal limb bud; during developmental anomaly characterized by the fusion of the fingers or toes? Syndactyly
You know the age of the neutrophils the greater number of? Lobes
What is movement of inflammatory cells toward a chemical attractant? Chemotaxis
What is the movement or passage of blood cells, especially red blood cells, through intact capillary walls? Diapedesis
What is a hardening of tissues secondary to deposition of collagen; excessive fibrosis may cause scarring? Fibrosis
Anything foreign that enters the body? Antigen
What is a mononuclear small white blood cells involved in the immune response of the body Lymphocytes
This cell comes from the B lymphocytes? Plasma cells
What is a type of cell division that occurs in somatic cells and results in the formation of two genetically identical daughter cells? Mitosis
Who are highly mobile and are therefore the 1st to reach the site of inflammation in response to chemotactic substance? Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN)
What is a "Cell Eating";the taking in of solid particles into a cell that is later destroyed by the cell? Phagocytosis
Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) produces what type of scavenger cells? Phagocytosis
What is a very small blood cell derived from the fragmented cytoplasm of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow; and participate in coagulation, wound healing, and inflammation? Platelets
What are the largest of the cells and are horseshoe shaped nucleus, highly acidic, in chronic infections, killing bacteria and secreting cytokines? Macrophages
What is a white blood cell, it is also called a neutrophil? Polymorphonuclear leukocytes
Are fragments of cells that come from a megakaryocyte in the bone marrow; do not have a nucleus, part of the clotting process, increase to the permeability of the blood vessels? Platelets
What is derived from arachidonic acid through the cyclooxygenase pathway, that mediate inflammation, smooth muscle cell contraction or relaxation, and vascular permeability? Prostaglandins
What can make up to 3,000 platelets? Megakaryocyte
What is a yellow inflammatory discharge (exudate) composed of viable as well as dead and dying neutrophils? Pus
What type of inflammation has a sudden onset and lasts from a few hours to a few days? Acute inflammation
What is a scar that extends beyond the original borders of the injury; hyperplasia scar? Keloids
What type inflammation last for years, prolong healing of an acute inflammation or a foreign body present? Chronic inflammation
What are the cardinal signs of inflammation? (calor) heat (rubo) redness (tumor) swelling (dolor) pain aka itching loss of function discovered by Rudolf Virchow
What are the causes of inflammation? Infectious pathogen, bacteria, viral, fungal, physical change, chemical, immune response.
What is alcohol that has a high caloric content and serves as a substrate for new fat for fat formation in liver cells known as? Neolipogensis
What is the mildest form of inflammation; exudation of serum, typically in a viral infection and very few cells are involved? Serous Inflammation
When the storage of fat in the liver becomes overload due to diet what is this known as? Lipid Acculturation
What is fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell; membrane-bounded structures in the cytoplasm that may contain enzymes? Vacuole
What is the functional part of organs and glands? Parenchyma
What is a membranous sac that contains digestive enzymes and hydrolytic acids pH 4; take in a bacteria and will destroy the bacteria? Lysosome or Peroxisome
What is the cytoskeleton; the framework of a organ and gland? Stroma (reticular fibers-tough)
What are small granules composed of RNA and are also involved in protein synthesis? Ribosomes
What includes many complex adaptions and, unfortunately, many cellular events that are irreversible? Aging
What is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosing its contents; function is to protect the integrity of the interior of the cell by allowing certain substances into the cell, while keeping other substances out, composed of proteins and lipids? Cell Membrane
What are the two major hypotheses as an explanation on aging? Wear-and-tear hypothesis Genetic hypothesis
What is the finishing factory. Proteins coming from the RER sent to the golgi not completed yet; need to be sorted or packaged. Golgi Body with Vesicles
What is an enlargement of the cell cytoplasm caused by an influx of water after reversible cell injury? Hydropic Change
What is a mechanism by which cells ingest extracellular fluid and its contents; it involves the formation of invaginations by the cell membrane, which close and break off to form fluid-filled vacuoles in the cytoplasm? Pinocytotic Vesicle Formation
What is the bodies results from dysfunction at the cellular level; organs composed of cells that cannot regenerate, such as the brain and heart? Wear-and-tear hypothesis
Where lipid and carbohydrate production, calcium storage, and is a detox center? Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
What is aging is a genetically predetermined process; hormonal, immune, and neural theories blame all the calamities of aging on the dysfunction of these integrative processes? Genetic hypothesis
What is a short cylindrical array of nine triplet microtubules that produce flagellate cells? Centrioles
What is the cessation of life as indicated by the absence of all vital functions, most notably loss of brain activity (brain death)? Death
What is an area involved in the development of microtubules (aka microtubule organizing center) that are necessary for cell movements, e.g. the mitotic spindle.? Centrosomal area
What is a bacterial infection of coagulated tissue? Wet gangrene
What is the powerhouse of the cell, double membrane enclosed organelle rich in oxidative enzyme's, major role is to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate); sources for the synthesis of ATP are fatty acids and glucose? Mitochondrion
What are the pathogens of inflammation? Changes in circulation of blood Changes in vessel wall permeability A white blood cell response The release of soluble mediators
What is the double membrane that has a lot of pores? Outer Membrane of Nuclear Envelope (Nuclear Membrane)
Where White Blood Cells become sticky, adhering to the endothelial cells lining the capillaries and particularly those of the post-capillary venules? Pavementing
What is the opening in the nuclear envelope that allow for communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm? Nuclear Pores
What is vascular wall changes? The permeability of the vessel wall of capillaries and post capillary venules changes in response to inflammation.
What is a specialized organelle composed primarily of RNA's; site in the nucleus where ribosomes are synthesized? Nucleolus
What are the changes of the vascular wall? Increase pressure inside the congested blood vessel. Slowing of the circulation, which reduces the supple of oxygen and nutrients to endothelial cells. Adhesion of leukocytes. Release of soluble mediators of inflammation from inflammatory cells, platelets, endothelial cells, and plasma.
What is a rod-shaped structure, usually found in pairs in a cell nucleus, which carries the genes that determine sex and the characteristics an organism, inherits from its parents? Chromosome
What is a potent basil dilator that increases the permeability of the blood vessels; that is released by platelets and mast cells and that mediates inflammation in type I hypersensitivity reactions? Histamine
What is a double membrane layer that surrounds the cell. It is dotted with thousands of nuclear pores which allows material to move into and out of the nucleus. The nucleus can send a stream of RNA and other info-carrying molecules to the rest of the cell through nuclear pores? Inner Membrane of Nuclear Envelope
What is internal and external round orifice in bands of smooth muscle in a circular arrangement? Sphincter
What is the brains of the cell, directs all cellular activity, where all the nuclear proteins are contained, DNA of the nucleus contains essential genetic material, chromosomes of cells, traits, DNA is transcribed into the nuclear RNA? Nucleus
What is relaxation of the pre-capillary sphincter in the arterioles results in flooding of the capillary network and dilation of capillaries and post-capillary? Venules (where redness and heat comes from)
What has ribosomes attached to the outside; production of proteins? Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
What is the blood flow in dilated capillaries and venules is slow, the distribution of the cellular elements of the blood; the white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets changes in the bloodstream known as? Congestion
What in specialized, highly differentiated cells, such as liver of kidney cells; the ratio of the nucleus to the cytoplasm, (nucloecytoplasmic N.C.) is much lower in differentiated cells of adult tissues? Cytoplasm with Organelle
What is the connected tissue cell derived from circulating basophils? Mast cells
What are the building blocks of protein? Amino Acid
What mediator is 1st to release quickly, responsible for inflammation, leaks out into the interstitial spaces and last about 30 minutes? Histamine (the initial redness and swelling)
What is caused by factors inside the organism or system? Endogenous
What is caused by factors (as food or a traumatic factor) or an agent (as a disease-producing organism) from outside the organism or system? Exdogenous
What mediator is a plasma protein that is slower than histamine it amplifies the inflammatory reaction and induces pain, is a vasoactive peptide formed during inflammation by the enzyme kallikrein? Bradykinn
What is one of a large group of low-molecular-weight proteins secreted most prominently by leukocytes and macrophages during inflammation and immune reactions? Cytokines
Is Fibrin soluble or insoluble? Insoluble
What is a systemic infection in which bacteria gain access to the blood, where they grow and secrete their toxins; also known as bacteremia or septicemia? Sepsis
Plasma proteins are produced by the? Liver
What is a localized collection of pus? Abscess
What are the two complement activation pathways? Classical Pathway Alternative Pathway
What is the presence of bacteria in the blood; also known as septicemia? Bacteremia
What complement is activated by antigen-antibody? Classical Pathway
What is a collective term for a group of mostly fibrous structural proteins found in connective tissues? Collagen
What complement is activated by bacterial endotoxins, fungi, something inside the blood vessel? Alternative Pathway
What is a group of serum proteins that mediate inflammation and coagulation and amplify immune reactions? Complement
What is a collection of pus in a body cavity, as in the pleural cavity? Eypyema
What is an elevation of body temperature above the normal (37° C)? Fever
What is a connective tissue cell that synthesizes collagen? Fibroblasts
What is an abnormal channel, caused by inflammation or tumor, that connects two hollow organs? Fisula
What is an excess of blood in part of the body caused by increased blood flow? Hyperemia
What is the premature "bursting" open of a wound along a surgical suture? Wound dehiscence
What is a cell vacuole formed from lysosomes and involved in phagocytosis of particulate material? Heterphagosomes
What is an intracytoplasmic vacuole containing elements of a cell's own cytoplasm? Autophagosomes
What is the a brown pigment composed of oxidized fats that accumulate in the autophagosomes of aging and chronically damaged cell? Lipofusion
What is the the semi-liquid portion of the cytoplasm that surrounds the cell organelles? Hyaloplasm
What is the the filamentous part of the cytoplasm comprising microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments? Cytoskeleton
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