Biology Unit 2 Flashcards

Flashcards by themoonisdown, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by themoonisdown almost 5 years ago


Flashcards for National 5 Biology Course - Unit 2 Multicellular organisms. Sorry if all topics aren't included yet, I will add them as I progress through unit 2 in class. These questions are taken from extended response questions completed in class - all answers are model answers from my teacher. Hope this helps

Resource summary

Question Answer
Describe the role of the central nervous system in humans -Accepts information -Processes information -Responds to information
Describe the functions of the cerebrum controls all higher activities e.g. memory, emotions, processes information and intelligence
Describe the functions of the cerebellum controls balance and co-ordination of muscles, involved in precise, accurate movement
Describe the role of the Medulla Controls activities that animal isn't conscious of - breathing, digestion, heart rate etc.
Describe the role of sensory neurons in the nervous system transmit messages from sense receptors (e.g. nose, eye) to the brain or spinal cord(CNS) Receptors to relay neurons
Describe the role of relay neurons in the nervous system connects a sensory neuron to a motor neuron - passes impulse from sensory to motor neuron
Describe the function of the motor neuron in the nervous system carry information towards an effector which may be a muscle or a gland
Describe what happens when electric impulse signal arrives at a synapse when an electrical impulse arrives at a synapse neurotransmitter molecules are releases from synaptic vesicles. the neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft, triggering receptors on receiving neuron to release an electrical impulse
Describe the flow of information along a reflex arc firstly stimulus is detected by receptors and electrical impulses are passed along the sensory neuron. the signal is then passed from sensory neuron to the relay neuron where it is then passed onto the motor neuron. the signal then reaches the muscle/gland and the muscle/gland responds
Explain how the action of hormones is specific. (2 marks) target tissues have cells with receptor proteins - the hormone only affects receptors on it's target cells -each hormone has a function not carried out by any other
describe the role of the pancreas in the control of blood sugar. (2 marks) -produces insulin which causes excess blood glucose to be stored - produces glucagon, which causes the release of glucose from the store
Describe the role of the liver in the control of blood -stores excess glucose as glycogen -release glucose from glycogen
describe the control of blood glucose concentration in humans. (3 marks) - raised glucose triggers insulin release by pancreas -insulin causes liver to convert to glucose to glycogen and store it when glucose levels fall glucagon released by pancreas -glucagon cause liver to convert glycogen back into glucose and release it back into the bloodstream -(glucagon converts glycogen to glucose) (Any 3 of the above is sufficient)
Describe the two types of diabetes. (3 marks) - type 1 appears in childhood usually - type 1 cause by lack of insulin - type 2 often appears in overweight individuals - type 2 caused by liver receptors not responding to insulin
What is the meaning of specialised in relation to cells? has certain physical and structural characteristic which allow the cell to carry out a specific function - structure is suited to the function
what is the general function of stem cells? to produce more cells for growth and repair - to replace cells that are damaged or lost - divide to produce a supply of cells which can then specialise
Describe what happens to a stem cell that results in the production of a red blood cell that results in the production of red blood cells in humans -cell division -stem cells divides -loses nucleus -produces haemoglobin -develops biconcave shape
describe the differences and similarities between adult and embryonic stem cells similarity - both can divide, both are un-specialised differences - embryonic stem cells can become any cell, adult limited to only a few types of cell
describe the ethical issues surrounding research into human embryonic stem cells -moral principle to improve medicine -moral principle to respect human life - these two principles cannot both be respected in embryonic stem cell research
give the meaning of haploid a cell with one set of chromosomes - always sex cells(gametes)
give the meaning of diploid a cell which contains two sets of chromosomes
describe the differences between a sperm cell and an ovum sperm cells are tiny and have a tail for swimming ova are large and have a food supply to feed early embryo
describe how fertilisation is achieved in a flowering plant -male pollen carried from anther to the stigma by wind or insects -pollen grows pollen tube through style to ovary -pollen nucleus fuses with female ovule nucleus
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