U2: Instructional Approaches and Underlying Theories flash cards (EDID6503 unit 2)

Annika L-M
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Graduate Instructional Design Flashcards on U2: Instructional Approaches and Underlying Theories flash cards (EDID6503 unit 2), created by Annika L-M on 03/16/2015.

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Annika L-M
Created by Annika L-M over 4 years ago
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Question Answer
What is Academic Learning Time (ALT)? The amount of time students are successfully involved with important and meaningful content that will be assessed
What are the three measures of Academic Learning Time (ALT)? The three measures are student classroom behaviour, success on classroom assignments, and student coverage of content objectives
What are the four phases of the general model of direct instruction? Presentation, Practice, Assessment & Evaluation, and Monitoring & Feedback
What phase of the Transactional Model of Direct Instruction occurs throughout instruction? Monitoring and Feedback
How does Ausubel refer to advance organizers? Information at a higher level of abstraction that has to be learned. Activities that link or bridge new information to existing cognitive structures
How should practice be provided? Present guided practice, followed but independent practice, and finally periodic review
What instructional methods should be used during monitoring and feedback? Cues & prompts and corrective feedback
How are scripted sessions organized? Answer – Question – Response
How does the scripted session approach differ from the general model? It has a more detailed analysis with smaller steps and the exact wording the teacher and student use is written down
What factors should be used to decide on whether scripted instruction should be used? Content and skills that represent chained behaviour. Teaching fundamental concepts
List three values that are reflective of the discussion approach Believing that individuals should participate in their own learning; Respecting different perspectives of concepts and problems; Promoting collaboration and democratic process for learning; Emphasizing questioning, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills; Creating a community of learners; Accepting that life experiences should be inseparable from learning
What does shared responsibility mean? The discussion teaching shifts from an instructor-centred approach to a student-centred approach
How are the activities for higher learning incorporated in the discussion learning approach? The approach incorporates listening, reflecting, responding, and linking learning activities.
What are the steps for incorporating the practice of discussion teaching? Develop a plan; develop a concept outline; add a question outline; create a visible outline on a board
What are some ideas for assisting participants in being actively involved in discussion teaching? Modeling the process, stating clear expectations; setting ground rules, designing practice sessions, and anticipating obstacles and problems
What is the role of closing in the discussion instruction approach? Summarizing major ideas, an opportunity to list or request resources to support the main ideas that evolved from the discussion, and a time to critique the session
Provide some examples of variations in conditions for discussion teaching Age and experience of learners, online and distance classes, student resistance
How can an instructor address student resistance to discussion approach to instruction? Allowing more practice time, allow students with more experience to share their experiences, limit discussion to small groups
How can democratic learning be encouraged? Creating a contract that addresses expected behaviours and activities for group members
What is one way that life experiences can be built into discussion teaching? Use of autobiographies, using what learners already know, relationship building
What is expectation failure? Feedback in the form of failure that asks learners to question their assumptions or their process of learning
Distinguish between primary and secondary experiences Primary experiences are direct experiences while secondary experiences are ways that people process those experiences
What are some of the criticisms of Kolb’s cyclical experiential learning cycle? Learners may not engage in all steps sequentially; Some of the steps may occur simultaneously; Attempts to divide reflection with experience; Not all learners will engage in all the steps
What are the three universal principles of experiential learning? Framing the experience, activating experience, reflecting on experience
What components are necessary to help a learner frame an experience? Defining instructional goals, Communicating criteria for assessment, Formally defining social structure
What universal characteristics are necessary for activating experience? Authentic experience, making decisions for authentic outcomes, problem-orientation, optimal difficulty
What situational principles are applicable for activating prior experience? Class discussion, stories and digital stories
Provide examples for activating new experiences Simulations, games, internships, role-playing, service-learning
When are journals and portfolios particularly useful in experiential learning? When the active presence of a teacher or peers is not possible, necessary, or realistic, or desirable
What is one way that life experiences can be built into discussion teaching? Making participation voluntary, attaining informed consent, establishing rules of conduct, ensuring equal participation
Provide a quick definition of PBL A student-centred instructional strategy where students collaboratively solve problems and reflect on their experiences. They are encouraged to take responsibility for their learning group and organize and direct the learning process with support from a tutor or instructor.
How does PBL differ from the case-based approach? The main difference is in the purpose of the instruction. If vivid complex exemplars are needed, cases are more ideal. If the nature of the cases is less defined, PBL is more ideal.
What are the three areas of learning that collectively underscore the problem-based approach? Cognitive flexibility theory, situated cognition, and PBI
What kinds of skills are PBI best suited for? Higher-order thinking skills
Why should problems used in PBI be ill-structured? Real-world problem are messy and learners need to develop the ability to make sense of ambiguous situations.
How are the tutor and coach distinguished in PBI? The coach models the thinking strategies of an expert in a realistic context and expects students to articulate their reasoning, knowledge, and problem-solving process. The tutor may not be an expert in the domain but operates at the meta-cognitive level to direct student thinking
What is one of the more challenging aspect of PBI Ability to assess self-regulation in learning
What are the important features of summative assessment in PBI? They have to be authentic and the assessment should develop a problem solution as well as knowledge of concepts, theories, and terminologies
What is the purpose of debriefing in PBI? To help learners recognize, verbalize, and consolidate what they have learned and to integrate new information with existing knowledge
What are some implementation issues with PBI? Commitment of the instructor, commitment to the complete PBI process, shift of teachers’ pedagogical beliefs, and conducive physical space
Provide a quick definition of a microworld A microworld is a model-centred environment in which a model is constructed by the learner using tools and parts presented by the designer
What are the key features of instructional simulations? • Used to teach self-directed learning strategies • Help learners explore, navigate the system or environment • Goal-oriented and focused on specific facts, concepts • Dynamic
What three criteria should be applied to the design of simulations? Adaptivity, Generativity, Scalability
What does the fidelity principle under content function imply? Fidelity describes the degree of resemblance between reality and the model.
What are the three kinds of models used for instructional simulation? 1. Environmental models 2. Cause-effect models 3. Performance models
What is the role of augmentation? They supply the part of the instructional experience not generated by the model. They also support learner’s actions of model observation, interpretation, decision-making, organization, processing new information, recalling, acting, judging, evaluating, valuing
What role do controls systems play in instructional simulation? Allow learner to perform actions on model, 2) Adjust patterns of augmentation; 3) Adjust representation of the mode; 4) Control of personal data for reporting and monitoring outcomes
Why is the messaging function important? Messages are the foundation of simulation-to-learner communication. They are the tool for delivery for other functions e.g. augmentation, control, data management
Name at least three aspects of instructions that must be incorporated into the media logic function for it to be effective. Instructions for: Executing the model; coordinated execution of augmentation; accepting learner actions and responses; forming messages; providing representation to the learner; collecting, storing, processing, displaying learner data
How does the data management function differ from computer-management instruction (CMI)? It supports and makes adaptivity to individual learner actions possible by adding functions that incorporate actions by the learner into decision making for their participation
What are the five instructional methods that should be used during the presentation phase of direct instruction? 1) Review of previous materials and/or prerequisite skills 2) Statement of specific knowledge or skills to be learned 3) Statement or experience that provides students with a reason or explanation why these skills are important 4) Clear, active explanation of the knowledge or skills to be learned 5) Multiple opportunities for students to demonstrate their initial understanding in response to teacher probes
What is the distinction between the general model for direct instruction and scripted sessions? The general model for direct instruction and scripted session are built on the same principles but the scripted model differs in terms of specificity of teacher statements and student responses. Scripted sessions present smaller amounts of new information and skill training in each session. Both assume that nothing is completely taught in a single session.
What are the universal principles of discussion teaching? 1) Shared responsibility: Shift from instructor-centred to student-student and teacher-student 2) Collaboration and multiple perspectives: Respect for multiple perspectives and worldviews 3) Instructor competency: Competency in a discipline and facilitation skills 4) Life experiences: Acknowledge and utilize life experiences 5) Activities for higher learning: Reflecting, listening, responding, linking to promote higher learning 6) Democratic learning community: Environment that equally allows all students to speak freely without fear 7) Physical environment: Environment should allow easy and comfortable communication
List some ideas for assisting students to become actively involved in the discussion process. 1) Model the process through actual demonstration 2) State clear expectations 3) Set rules for interaction 4) Design practice session 5) Sort out obstacles ahead of time
What are some of the criticisms for using experience as a basis for learning? 1) Not all experience offers a good learning opportunity 2) Some information may be wrong or meaningless 3) The learner’s interpretation may be misguided
Provide three (3) methods for activating prior learning Class discussions, stories, critical incident narratives
Provide three (3) approaches for activating new experience. Simulation, games, role playing, experimentation, action learning project, service learning, internships and apprenticeships, field experience.
Problem-based learning is intended to provide well-structured vivid and complex exemplars that assist learners in forming conceptual relationships using abstract content. True or False? False. The case-based approach is use with well-structure content with a possible single solution. Problem-based learning is less clearly defined and the solution or range of solutions not pre-determined.
Which of the following are universal principles for problem-based instruction? a. Problems are authentic and fit within the curriculum b. Use of authentic assessment c. Use of debriefing strategies at the end of the session d. All the above All the above. In addition, there is the role of the tutor to support development of learners’ metacognitive skills.
What are some of the determinants of the social contexts on simulation learning? 1) The social context determined the forms and patterns of communication among learners, instructors, and instructional agents 2) The social context may be determined by the nature of the task 3) The social context may be tailored to represent other values for example cultural or language barriers 4) The role of the participants 5) The patterns of initiative-sharing