PE - Unit 5

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Health, fitness and active lifestyle
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Question Answer
Define health A complete state of physical, mental and social wellbeing
How does smoking affect health? Sends toxins into the body which damages hemoglobin and reduces stamina
What is a drug? A substance that alters the chemical balance of your body
What are the ways you can improve your health? P - Personal hygiene (reduces infection) L - Lifestyle (active) E - Emotional health (stable home life) A - Alcohol and drug avoidance S - Safety (avoid injury) E - Environment (pollution caused asthma) D - Diet (low fat & high nutrition) PLEASED
Define Fitness The ability to meet the demands of the environment.
Define exercise Activity that involves physical and/or mental exertion
What does it mean to be sedentary? Being physically inactive
What are some practical ways to have an active lifestyle Walk or cycle instead of drive Use stairs, not lifts Get a practical job involving activity Make time for exercise daily
What are the benefits of an active lifestyle? Improved strength, stamina and suppleness Improved sleep patterns Toned body with no excess fat Relief of stress and tension
How often should you exercise? 30 minutes vigorous exercise, 3 times a week
What are the functions of the skeletal system? Movement (at joints) Shape (for our somatotype) Support (for muscles and organs) Protection (of vital organs) Blood cell production (in bone marrow)
What is a joint? A point of movement between two or more bones.
What are the three joint classifications? Freely moveable Slightly moveable Fixed
What are the five types of movements at joints? Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Rotation
What is flexion? Decreasing the angle at a joint. Eg. bicep curling
What is extension? Increasing the angle at a joint. Eg. throwing a javelin
What is abduction? Sideways movement away from the centreline of the body
What is adduction? Sideways movement towards the centreline of the body
What is rotation? Curved movement around an axis eg. bowling a ball in cricket
What are the four types of bone? With examples Long eg. femur, humerus Short eg. phalanges, metacarpals Flat eg. pelvis, ribs Irregular eg. vertebrae, patella
What are the six categories of joints? Hinge Ball and socket Pivot Saddle Gliding Condyloid
Give an example of a hinge joint the elbow or the knee
Give an example of a ball and socket joint The hip or the shoulder
Give an example of a pivot joint the top of the neck
Give an example of a saddle joint At the thumb
Give an example of a gliding joint Inter-carpal joints (in the hand)
Give an example of a condyloid joint At the wrist
What are the different connective tissues? Tendons Ligaments Cartilage
What are tendons Non elastic tissue that attaches muscle to bone
What are ligaments Fibers that connect bones at a join to keep it stable
What is cartilage? Flexible tissue between bones that prevents them rubbing
How does exercise affect the skeleton Strengthens bones and joint connections
What are the three types of muscle? With examples Skeletal - Voluntary, conscious control. eg. bicep and triceps Involuntary - unconscious contraction. eg. intestine walls and arteries Cardiac - automatic and never tires. eg. the heart
What are the two types of muscle attachments and where do they attach to? Origin - Where the muscle tendon attaches to the stationary bone Insertion - where the muscle tendon attaches to the moving bone
Define antagonistic muscles Opposite muscles working in pairs to cause movement
How does the process of antagonistic muscles to allow movement work? The prime mover muscle contracts to cause movement The antagonist muscle opposite to the prime mover relaxes to allow movement
What is muscle tone? Slight tension in muscle pairs to stabilize the movement
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