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Urbanisation

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Revision flashcards on Geography - Population and Settlement - Landuse - Urbanisation and Rural to Urban Migration inc. Internal Migration Case Study
Jess Molyneux
Flashcards by Jess Molyneux, updated more than 1 year ago
Jess Molyneux
Created by Jess Molyneux about 7 years ago
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Question Answer
List some push factors which make people want to leave rural areas in LEDCs. (hint: there are 4 points, some with supporting explanation) Lack of shops, services, electricity, piped water and sanitation Few job prospects - reliance on rainfall subsistence farmers can't produce enough food; high unemployment (mechanisation) and lack of alternative High IMR Poor housing
List some pull factors which make people want to move to the city in LEDCs. (hint: there are 4 points) Believed better services, transport and access and job prospects (less manual labour) Successful migrants encourage others Glamorous image and 'bright lights' Advertising campaigns to attract workers to cities (1950s and 1960s)
Give a brief locational description of Sao Paulo. Capital of Sao Paulo state South east of Brazil Between Rio de Janeiro and Curibita 30 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean port of Santos
Give some positive effects of rural to urban migration on the source area. (hint: there are four) More land for others - increased income Less competition for jobs New skills (if temporary) Money earned if sent home (standards improve)
Give some negative effects of rural to urban migration on the source area. (hint: there are two) Less efficient workforce (most active people leave) Underpopulation and underemployment
Give some negative effects of rural to urban migration on the receiving area. (hint: there are 5) Insufficient service provision Shortage of affordable formal housing - shanty towns (inappropriate land - no services, low living standards) Collapsing infrastructure Increased pollution and congestion More work in informal sector
What are the three major consequences of rural to urban migration? Urban growth/sprawl (physical area) Urbanisation (population) Creation of megacities (10 million +)
What are the results of urbanisation in LEDCs? Give examples based on Rio. (Hint: there are 5) Increase in industry Possible redevelopment (Barra da Tijuca) Increase in slums (Favelas like Rochina) Mass unemployment in urban area (increased crime, work in informal sector) Underemployment in rural area
Define the term 'urbanisation' A growth in the population of people who live in an urban area.
List some solutions to the problems of shanty towns in cities such as Rio de Janeiro in LEDCs. (Bonus: give details of these schemes in Rio) Low cost authority housing (£200 million spent on 60 areas) Site-and-service self help schemes (3 successful) Voluntary self-improvement
What does local authority housing involve? - Local authorities clear slums and re-house population (low rent, high rise flats) - Establish essential, retail and leisure services in the space created. - Basic - water, gas, electricity, sewerage and waste disposal
What are the 2 benefits of low cost local authority housing? Removes 'eyesores' from affluent and tourist districts Provides services and proper housing for people living in slums
What are the 4 problems with local authority housing? Expensive (usually low tax income areas) Rent still too high for some - sub-letting rooms, drastic overcrowding Internal alterations without permission or expertise, becomes unsafe Encouragement for more migrants
What do site and service self help schemes involve? - Local authority clears slums - Provides infrastructure for electricity, gas, water, sewerage and waste disposal - Plans services, road network and housing - Building materials at subsidised prices - Community provides labour force
What are the 2 benefits of self help schemes? Accommodation and infrastructure better planned and more attractive Community acquires construction skills
What are the 4 problems of self help schemes? Poor quality of workmanship Lengthy process Very expensive Further attraction for rural migrants
What does voluntary self-improvement involve? (Bonus: where has this been observed?) - Shanty towns residents make improvements once settled and affordable All but exceptionally recent of Rio de Janeiro's 600 Favelas.
What is the benefit of voluntary self-improvement schemes? No cost to authority
What are the 2 problems with voluntary self-improvement? Overcrowding, lack of services and environmental hazard remain Space remains narrow so waste disposal, public transport and emergency services remain problematic
What is a Barra da Tijuca? A city located 20km west of Rio de Janeiro
What is Barra da Tijuca's current population? How does this compare to historic figures? 130,000 It was virtually uninhabited in 1970
Describe recent changes which have taken place in Barra da Tijuca. 5km shopping district and largest mall in South America Schools, hospitals, offices, exclusive restaurants and leisure centres Luxury high rise apartments (10-30 storeys), protected by security guards
Explain the recent changes which have taken place in Barra da Tijuca. In Rio: Traffic and pollution Acute poverty for 1/3 of citizens High rates of burglary, theft and violence Rich left - four lane motorway (tunnels through hills and passes over the sea on stilts) built linking the two cities
What more recent development in Barra da Tijuca was originally intended to be prevented at all costs? Why has it been allowed? Small Favelas developing in discreet locations on the edge of town Wealthy residents employ people as housekeepers, cooks, cleaners and gardeners so they must live somewhere
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