A2 Health Psychology Studies

melissa.hobbs
Flashcards by , created over 4 years ago

A2 Health Psychology Studies under the OCR exam board

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melissa.hobbs
Created by melissa.hobbs over 4 years ago
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Question Answer
What is the purpose of the Health Belief model? A theory to explore the reasons people may not practice health behaviours.
What 7 influences can impact a person into changing their health behaviours? Susceptibility Severity Cues to action (prompts to start change) Costs Benefits Health motivation Perceived Control
What study relates to the Health Belief Model? Abraham
What is the aim of Abraham's study? intentions of carrying out HIV preventative behaviour
What is the sample of Abraham's study? 351 scottish teens
What is the method of Abraham's study? Self Report/Postal Questionnaire
What did Abraham find? Most intended to use preventative behaviour. Costs outweighed pros =Awkward =Pleasure reduction Didn't perceive high susceptibility
What is the Locus of Control? Our beliefs of what control events in our lives.
What are the two types of Locus of Control? Internal - Think rationally and understand your actions have consequences External - Irrational belief that all events stem from an external source and you have no control
Where does our LoC come from? It all stems from past experiences. Internal coming from consistent rewards and punishment External coming from inconsistent rewards and punishment
Which study is relevant to the LoC? Steptoe and Wardle
What is the aim of Steptoe and Wardle's research? investigate the relationship between health LoC, health values and 10 health related behaviours (e.g. not smoking, seatbelt use, daily toothbrushing)
What is the sample of Steptoe and Wardle's research? Over 7000 students
What did Steptoe and Wardle find? P's with the highest INTERNAL scores were more likely to perform 5 or more health behaviours. Low INTERNAL and High EXTERNAL scores = poor health choices
How is LoC measured? Self Report Use a likert scale (degree to agree) on statements about attitude to health behaviours.
What is Self Efficacy? The inner belief that you can successfully carry out a change in your health behaviour
What 2 aspects make up your Self Efficacy? Outcome Expectations - general belief about outcome of the behaviour. Efficacy Expectations - Past experiences, Vicarious (Other's) experiences, verbal persuasion, emotional arousal.
How does emotional arousal effect your self efficacy? If there is high emotional arousal, generally S.E is low. Low emotional arousal = High S.E
How does cognitive appraisal effect our Self Efficacy? Cognitive Appraisal is the assessment of a situation so our belief about the situation may influence our S.E
What study relates to Self Efficacy? Bandura & Adams
What is the aim of Bandura & Adams' study? assess the S.E of patients undergoing Systematic desensitisation
What was the sample of Bandura and Adams' study? 10 Snake phobic patients (via self selected-newspaper ad)
What is the method of Bandura and Adams' study? Correlational
What were the 3 stages on Bandura and Adams' procedure? 1. P's completed 29 tasks (increased exposure to snake) + S.E measured before each task. 2. Systematic Desensitisation 3. Tasks re-administered (1 week after 2. max.)
What were the results of Bandura and Adams' study? Efficacy expectations increased- pre 15% post 50% Ability to interact with snake pre 11% post 54%
What are the 3 methods of health promotion? Media Campaigns Legislation Fear Arousal
How does the World Health Organisation (WHO) define health promo? "the process of enabling people to increase control and improve their health"
How do media campaigns work? Seek to change behaviour by first changing attitudes
What study uses media campaigns? Cowpe
What does Cowpe seek to change? (Aim) Investigate if ads could reduce chip-pan fires
What method did Cowpe use? Quasi-experiment Questionnaires and analysis of fire brigade records/stats
What was the sample? 10 regions between 1976 - 1984
What did Cowpe use as the procedure? 2 ads showing cause and actions to put fire out.
What were the results of Cowpe's study? STATS - The largest reduction of chip pan fires was during the campaign. If the regions were exposed on more than one channel it showed less impact. Q - increased awareness & chip pans mentioned more as dangerous (Y'Shire pre - 12% post - 28% )
How does legislation work? Legislation is an authoritarian approach to prevent unsafe and unhealthy behaviours.
Example of legislation to prevent unsafe/unhealthy behaviours 1930-1962 Road Traffic Act ammended 3 times - recognised driving under influence unsafe = illegal. 1964 = Accident, Alcohol and Risk Study discovered 80mg Alc per 100ml blood high risk. 1967 Road Safety Act = set of legal drink driving limit
What study uses legislation? Dannenberg
What was the aim of Dannenbergs study? investigate effect of legislation and educational campaigns on use of cycle helmets
Method of Dannenbergs study? Self Report - Survey
Sample of Dannenbergs study? 47 schools in 3 counties in Maryland -Howard = Law & ed -Montgomery = ed -Baltimore - no intervention (control)
How did legislation have an effect in Dannenberg's study? There was a positive impact of legislation, but health promo alone was minimal. Howard = increase 37% Baltimore = 13% Montgomery = 12% Ed didn't really have much diff
What is fear arousal? It helps people recognize and respond to dangerous situations
What study relates to fear arousal? Janis and Feshbach
What is the aim Janis and Feshbach's study? Investigate the consequences on emotions and behaviour of fear appeals
What is the method Janis and Feshbach's study? Lab experiment
What is the sample Janis and Feshbach's study? 14/15 y-o At High School US
What conditions were the P's put in? Independent measures 1. Strong fear appeal - painful consequences of poor dental hygiene 2. moderate fear appeal - little info 3. minimal - neutral info on tooth growth 4. lecture on eye structure
What is the procedure Janis and Feshbach's study? - Questionnarie before on dental practices - 15 min lecture - Questionnaire after on emotional reactions - questionnaire week later - effects of lecture
What is the results Janis and Feshbach's study? -amount of knowledge same all 4 groups -strong fear = too unpleasant - Change = Strong = 8% (defensive avoidance) Minimal = 36%
What are some reasons for non-adherence? - Forgetfulness - Side effects - Complex treatment - Feeling better - misunderstanding instructions
Which study investigates adherence? Bulpitt
What is the aim of Bulpitt? To investigate the adherence in hypertensive patients
What method did Bulpitt use? review article highlighting issues with taking blood pressure tablets to identify physical and psychological effects
What did Bulpitt find? Anti- hypertensive medication has many side effects - sleepiness - dizziness - disturbed cognitive functioning (can effect work + hobbies) 15% withdrew from treatment due to side effects
What are some meaures of adherence? -Self Report - Mechanical Pill Counts - Physiological measures - Therapeutic outcome
What study explores measures of adherence? Lustman
What is the aim of Lustman's study? Effectiveness of fluoxetine in treating depression
What size sample did Lustman use? 60 patients type 1 or 2 diabetes and depression 2 Conditions - Fluoxetine or placebo (double -blind)
What were the measures that Lustman used? - Assessment of depression by psychometric - Assessment of adherence by GHb = glycaemic control
What results did Lustman get? Patients in the fluoxetine group had lower depression and lower GHb ( indicating they adhered) Reduced depression = greater adherence
What study looks at improving adherence? Watt
What is the Aim of Watt's study? If using funhaler improved adherence
Method of Watt's study? Quasi field experiment
What was Watt's sample? 32 Australian Children (Design - repeated measures)
What was the procedure for Watt's study? P's used a normal inhaler for 1 week. Used funhaler in second week. End of each week, parent complete adherence questionnaire
What did Watt find? (results) 38% medicated day previous with funhaler 60% more children took recommended dose with funhaler
Who defined dysfunctional behaviour? Rosenhan & Seligman
What do Rosenhan and Seligman say defines dysfunctional/abnormal behaviour? - Deviation from statistical norms = if you fall outside of the range considered statistically typical. - Deviation from social norms - Failure to function adequately = i.e unpredictable + irrational behaviour, observer discomfort (make other uncomfortable)
What two tools can be used in diagnosis? - ICD 10 (International Classification of Diseases and related health problems) - DSM 5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual)
Characteristics of the ICD 10 - Revised 9 times -Covers all types of illness (inc psych) - 11 categorie for mental illness containing symptoms
Characteristics of DSM 5 -Created by clinicians for clinicians - exclusively for mental health - approx 380 disorders - Revised 4 times - 3 sections = Instructions, 20 chapters with disorders and diagnostic criteria, tools to enhance diagnosis
Which study looks into biases that may occur during diagnosis? Ford & Widiger
What is the aim of Ford and Widiger? investigate if clinicians stereotype disorders to genders
What method did Ford and Widiger use? Field exp using Self report
What was Ford and Widiger's procedure? Clinicians recieve case study of patient, - male/female/unclassifed - Suffering from symptoms - Anti-social personality disorder/histrionic personality disorder/mixed -
What were the IV and DV used by Ford and Widiger? IV = Gender of the patient DV = Diagnosis made by clinician
Sample of clinicians used by Ford and Widiger? 266 Clinical psychologists actually took part (issue with subject attrition) - randomly selected from register.
What results did Ford and Widiger get? Histrionic Personality disorder was stereotyped to women. So, Females with ASPD = mis-diagnosed 46% with HPD More likely to be diagnosed correctly with HPD if female. F=76% M=44% Gender unclass = borderline Personality disorder
What study provides a behavioural explanation for dysfunctional behaviour? Watson & Raynor
What is the aim of Watson and Raynor's study? investigate the possibility to induce fear of an unfeared object through classical conditioning
Method and sample behind Watson and Raynor? A case study- using only one P, Little Albert
Procedure used in Watson and Raynor? -Test Little Albert's reactions- only fear is loud noise -Create loud noise when with non-feared objects - Classical Conditioned response- associate fear felt from noise to previously unfeared object
What study can provide a cognitive insight to explain dysfunctional behaviour? Beck
Describe Beck's ABC model -Process around cognitive distortions (such as filtering and polarized thinking) A = Activating stimulus B = Belief (about the situation/stimulus = rational or irrational) C = Consequence (rational belief = healthy beh, irrational belief = unhealthy beh)
Beck's study- What is the aim? to understand cognitive distortions in patients with depression
What method did Beck use? Beck used a series of self report methods i.e interviews, reports and diaries in analysis, records of patients verbalisations
What results did Beck find? - Beck discovered many themes throughout depressed patients. i.e. low self esteem, self blame, desire to escape, paranoia, feelings of inferiority etc. - These cognitive distortions were often automatic ( they don't realise they are doing it) and persistent.
What study suggests biological explanations for dysfunctional behaviour? Gottesman and Shields
What was the aim of Gottesman and Shield study? review research on the genetic transmission of Schizophrenia
What method did Gottesman and Shield use? Research analysis - review adoption and twin studies into Schizophrenia 1967 -1976
What procedure did Gottesman and Shields carry out? Investigated the incidence of Schizophrenia in biological parents and adoptive parents (nature v nurture) and the concordance rate between monozygotic and dizygotic twins.
What did Gottesman and Shields discover? All 3 adoptive studies saw higher incidence of Schizophrenia if biological parent had it. Higher concordance rate of schizophrenia in monzygotic twins. Evidence of a genetic predisposition
What study provides insight into a behavioural treatment for dysfunctional behaviour? McGrath
What is the aim of McGrath's study? to document the successful use of systematic desensitisation for a phobia
Method used by McGrath? Case Study 4 weeks
What was the sample in McGrath's study? 1 - Little girl called Lucy, afraid of noise/balloons
What was the procedure used in McGrath's study? - Taught relaxation + coping techniques - Used a fear scale, 1-10 -Exposure was increased as Lucy grew used to the coping mechanisms and to control her fear
What findings did McGrath make? Throughout the desensitisation, as the exposure grew, Lucy learnt to cope with it, and so her rating on fear scale dropped.
What is a study that shows a cognitive treatment for dysfunctional behaviour? Ross & Scott
What was the aim of Ross & Scott's study? Investigate the effectiveness of group and individual cognitive therapy against drug therapy
What method did Ross & Scott use? Self report -Scales = Beck depression inventory (to assess depression) =interview based on Montgomery Asberg Depression scale
What sized sample did Ross & Scott use? 52 participated (after subject attrition, was 72)
What design did Ross & Scott use? Independent grousp, Randomly allocated to individual therapy, group therapy or 'the waiting list' i.e drug therapy
What was the procedure that Ross & Scott used? Cognitive therapy sessions occurred 12 times per patient. Every 3 months P's clinical and psychometric test were readministered
What findings did Ross & Scott make? - Cognitive therapy had a significant effect, but there was no significant difference between individual and group. - 20 patients were assessed 12 months after therapy = lasting effect- still improved since before therapy. - Any cog therapy is better than drug therapy & it has long term effects
What study shows biological treatment for dysfunctional behaviour? Cole
What is the aim of Cole's study? to assess the effectiveness of Thorazine to treat symptoms of Schizophrenia
How large was the sample in Cole's study? Patients with Schizophrenia admitted to 9 different psychiatric hospitals
What procedure did Cole use? - 2 conditions - Thorazine and placebo - 6 weeks under drug treatment - Doctors/nurse regularly rated prominence of 21 specific symptoms & rated on scale 1-7 to determine how mentally ill they were compared before and after
What findings did Cole make? - 75% taking Thorazine rated as much improved compared to 23% in placebo - after 6 weeks, 16% thorazine = rated normal, 30% bordeline mentally ill. - Thorazine group showed improvements on 13/21 of symptoms
What type of feelings is an anxiety disorder characterised by? fear and anxiety
Name an Anxiety disorder. Phobia
What does an affective disorder cause a disturbance in? mood and emotions
Name an affective disorder Depression
What does a psychotic disorder cause? A detachment from reality
Name a psychotic disorder Schizophrenia
What are the two types of depression? Reactive depression - sparked by stressful event outside ourselves Endogenous depression - arises within a person-independent of external events
What are the two types of schizophrenia? - Chronic onset - the gradual change - Acute onset - symptoms/signs can appear suddenly, often after a stressful event
What study can give a behavioural explanation for an affective disorder? Lewinsohn
What is the aim of Lewinsohn's study? investigate if depression is caused by a lack of positive reinforcment (operant conditioning)
What is the sample for Lewinsohn's study? 30 p's 3 conditions -diagnosed with depression -diagnosed with disorder other than depression -normal controls
What procedure did Lewinsohn use? Over 30 days, P's record mood daily on checklist, rate 320 activities on pleasantness and frequency that they do these activities. = measures of positive reinforcement.
What findings did Lewinsohn make? - Significant positive correlations between mood ratings and pleasant activities. - Involvement in activities correlated with positive mood ratings.
Which study can provide a biological explanation for an affective disorder? McGuffin
What was the aim of McGuffin's study? to investigate the effects of genes and shared family environments in the development of depression.
What sample did McGuffin use? 177 pairs of twins from a register over 40 years
What procedure did McGuffin use? - Diagnosed or co-twins interviewed as current state examination (for major depression), and about living circumstances together as twins
What findings did McGuffin make? Major depression can be attributed to heritable factors. 46% concordance rate in monozygotic twins 20% in dizygotic twins
What study an provide a cognitive explanation for an affective disorder? Seligman
What is the aim of Seligamn's study? Investigate the learned helplessness of depression
What was the sample of Seligman's study? 2 dogs
What procedure did Seligman use? - 2 Conditions (independent groups) 1. Dog rested 2. Dogs kept in an hammock and experienced random inescapable shocks - Both dogs put in a box, seperated with small wall. - On one side grates on floor administer electric shock.
What findings did Seligman make? The dog in condition 1, who had rested, quickly learnt to jump the wall and escape. Dog 2, learnt helplessness and persevered.
What is a study that illustrates a behavioural treatment of an affective disorder? Lewinsohn
What is the aim of Lewinsohn's study? TO evaluate the efficacy of a coping with depression course
Sample of Lewinsohn's study? 59 teens diagnosed with depression Recruited by letters and announcements at schools (after 10 left- subject attrition)
What were the conditions? 1. Only the adolescent attended 2. Adolescent and parent attended a parent class 3. on a 'waiting list'
Procedure of Lewinsohn? - Therapists controlled = manual - 14 x 2 hour treatments over 7 weeks - skills training i.e relaxation methods (phys), Control irrational thought (cog), increase social skills. - Parents taught how to reinforce
Findings made by Lewinsohn? 1. teens = 57% met criteria for dep 2. teens + parents = 52% met criteria for dep 3. control = 94.7% met criteria for dep
What study shows biological treatments for an affective disorder? Murlow
What is the aim of Murlow? effectiveness of anti-depressants
What is the sample in Murlow's study? 5,940 patients with depression
What procedure did Murlow use? Literature reviewed 1/32 new anti-depressants with either another new one, and older one or a placebo.
What results did Murlow discover? - 63% of those on newer drugs saw at least a 50% bigger improvement - 35% on placebo saw 50% or bigger improvement. - No sig diff between those on newer or older drugs
What study shows a cognitive treatment for an affective disorder? Wright
What is the aim of Wright's study? To investigate the effectiveness of of computer assisted CBT against standard CBT for Major depression
What is the sample of Wright's study? 45 P's with major depressive disorder
Method used by Wright? Quasi Experiment
What was the procedure of Wright's study? - 9 sessions over 8 weeks - Never had CBT - Assessed by trained blind raters before therapy, after 4 weeks, 8 weeks and again 3 and 6 months after treatment.