Level 3 Organics Revision

Millie Aitken
Flashcards by Millie Aitken, updated more than 1 year ago
Millie Aitken
Created by Millie Aitken over 7 years ago
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Entire Organics Paper revision flashcards

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Question Answer
Double Bond Alkene - ene
Hydroxyl Group Alcohol - anol
Carboxyl Group Carboxylic Acid - anoic acid
Ester Esters - oate
Chloroalkane group Haloalkane - chloroalkane or - bromoalkane
Carbonyl group Ketone - anone
Aldehyde Group Aldehyde - anal
Amino group Amide - amide
Acyl chloride group Acyl chloride - oyl chloride
Amino group Amine - amine
Alkenes: + MnO4- --> + H2O/H2SO4 --> + H2 Ni Catalyst --> + HBr --> + Br2 Forms: Diol Alcohol (Markovnikov's addition) Alkane Haloalkane (Markovnikov's addition) Di-haloalkane (Makrovnikov's addition)
Haloalkanes: + Alcoholic KOH Forms: Alkene (Saytzeff's elimination)
Alkanes: + steam cracking + Br2 U.V. light Forms: Alkene Haloalkane (forms Br" radical)
Haloalkanes: + Alcoholic NH3 Forms: Amine (Nucleophilic Substitution)
Amines: + di-amine + di-acid + acyl chloride Forms: Artificial Polyamide (Nylon) Natural Polyamide (Protein) Secondary Amide
Alcohols: + Conc. H2SO4 + diols/carboxyllic acids and condensation Forms: Alkenes (Sayteff's elimination) Polyesters
Secondary Alcohol: + H+/Cr2O72- and heat Forms: Ketone (oxidation)
Ketones: + Na BH4 + OH- Forms: Secondary Alcohols (reduction)
Sugars: Undergo fermentation to form... Alcohols
Primary Alcohols: + H+/Cr2O72- and Heat Forms: Aldehydes (oxidation)
Aldehydes: + Na BH4 + H+/Cr2O72- and Heat reflux Forms: Primary alcohols (reduction) Carboxylic acids (oxidation)
Carboxylic acids: + Metals/carbonates/bases + Alcoholic H2SO4 +SOCl2 or PCl3 Forms: Salts Esters (condensation) Acyl Chlorides (substitution)
Acyl Chlorides: + H20 (vigorous reaction) + Alcohol + Alcoholic NH3 + Amine Forms: Carboxylis acids (substitution) Esters (condensation) Primary Amides (substitution) Secondary Amides
Geometrical isomers occur in _____ and are different in terms of ______. They form ____ and ____ isomers. Occur in alkenes Different in terms of 3D shape Form cis and trans isomers
Structural isomers: They are the rearrangement of ___________________________________________________________________. They are a rearrangement of the physical atoms in different places.
Optical isomers (enantiomers): The molecule needs a ________________ and it reflects _____________________________________________________________. The molecule needs a chiral carbon and it reflects plane polarised light in opposite directions.
Markovnikov's rule: What is it? What type of reactions does it work for? What type of compounds does it not occur for? -'The rich get richer' -Addition rections - addition of various things to the double bonds in an assymetric compound - Does not occur in symmetric compounds
Electrophile Something that 'likes' electrons = is attracter to a - change
Nucleophile Something that 'likes' the nucleus and is attracted to the + change
Saytzeff's rule: 'The poor get poorer' Works in the opposite direction to Markovnikov's rule
Alkanes: Preparation Combustion Substitution Melting/boiling points - readily ungergo both depending on )2 availability - Hydrogenation of alkenes H2/Ni catalyst + heat - Cracking to split a long chain into smaller - C1-C4 Gases - C5-C16 Liquids C17+ Solids
Alkenes: Combustion Preparation Melting/Boiling points - Incomplete is more common - Cracking of alkanes (smaller ones as they don't occur naturally) - Dehydration of alcohols (Conc. H2SO4) - Elimination of halogens from haloalkanes (Aloholic OH-) - Similar to alkanes
Alkynes: Combustion Preparation (Acetylene = ehtyne) - Simple ones are too reactive to be found in nature - Calcium carbride + Water - Burns with luminous/smokey flame - Burns with very hot flame (excess O2 present)
Alcohols: Classification and how each class reacts Primary - oxidised to form an aldehyde then again to form carboxylic acid Secondary - Oxidised to form ketone Tertiary - no reaction
Alcohols: Melting/boiling points - Higher than other hydrocarbons because of H bonding between -OH groups strengthens intermolecular forces between molecules - C1-C4 - Soluable in water (can establish H bond with neighbouring water molecule) - C1-C8 - liquids at room temp
Alcohols: Isomerism - what type of isomers can sometimes occur? Why? - Optical isomers (enantiomers) can sometimes occur - The central assymetric carbon is bonded to four different groups (chiral carbon)
Alcohols: Preparation - Addition of H2O using H+/H2SO4 as a catalyst (Markovnikov) - Nucleophilic substitution of haloalkanes using aqueous OH- - More reactive tertiary haloalkanes + water form tertiary alcohols - Reduction of aldehydes of ketones
Alcohols: Combustion Burns readily with non-smokey flame to form Co2 + H2O
Why can't you smell Ethanol gas? - Strong forces (Hydrogen bonds / Intermolecular forces) - Turns into gas --> looking at boiling point - When the water is boiling, ethanol boils at 20 degrees and boils off --> vapourises and can't smell it - Such low boiling point you must seperate it (reflux)
Primary Alcohols undergo ___________ reactions with just about any _____________________. Undergo oxidation reactions with just about any oxidising agents.
Ethanol -(H+/MnO4-)-> Ethanal -(H+/MnO4- reflux)-> Ethanoic acid Aldehyde to carboxylic acid is easily oxidised
What has happened if a reaction of ethanol with permanganate does not produce a carboxylic acid? The boiling point of the aldehyde may be too high and therefore the aldehyde vapourised OR reflux is used to avoid the second reaction.
Secondary alcohol reaction: Propan-2-ol -(H+/MnO4-)-> Propanone
Tertiary alcohols only oxidise if you ______________________ however the molecule falls apart => cannot be oxidised. boil the heck out of them
Markovnikov and Saytzeff's rules produce _______ products ___% of the time and _________ products __% of the time. Major products 70% Minor products 30%
Saytzeff's rule can only occur from the ___________ products of Markovnikov's rule. Major product
Acyl Chlorides: Preparation What type of reactions do acyl chlorides undergo compared to carboxylic acids? - Formed by nucleophilic substitution of carboxylic acids by PCL3, PCL5 + SOCl2. - Same reactions as carboxylic acids but because they are more reactive, they react faster and further without a catalyst.
Acyl chlorides: Reactions -with water - with ammonia - with amines - with alcohols - very vigorous to form carboxylic acid and hydrogen chloride gas - readily reacts to form amide and ammonium salt - readily reacts with primary amines to form secondary amides and ammonium chloride salt - readily react to form an ester and hydrogen chloride
Esters: - Why are they not formed via elimination? - Preparation - Because a double bond is not formed. - Esterfication/condensation
Carboxylic acid and alcohol react in equilibrium to form ___________ when ____________ is used as a catalyst and a reflux is used? Ester H2SO4
What type of smell foes an ester have and what is it commonly used in? Fruity Artificial scents and industrial solvents
How are polymers formed? Addition reaction --> double bond breaks and forms unpaired electrons
Hydrogen Bonding: It is the strength of _______ and ___________________ interactions between molecules. Temporary and permanent dipole interactions
Hydrogen Bonding: Some compounds have ______________ forces that are much stronger than ordinary ______________ forces. Intermolecular forces
How do you identify an alkene? - K+/MnO4- will form a diol (purple to colourless) - Br2 water decolourises rapidly proving a double bond
How do you identify an alkyne? Baeyer's reagent - K+/MnO4- changes from purple to brown
How do you identify an alcohol? - Add a few drops of acetyl chloride to the unknown and an alcohol will produce heat/HCl gas OR a ppt.
How do you identify an aldehyde? -Add benedict's solution = a red/yellow/yellow-green solution should form if aldehyde present. - Add a few drops of tollens reagent = a silver/blck ppt. should form
How do you identify an amine? Add a few drops NaOH and an oily layer of the amine on top should form if present.
How do you identify a carboxylic acid? Add a few drops of Ethanolic silver nitrate to produce solid silver carboxylate salt which should then redissolve in dilute nitric acid.
Cis-pent-e-ene Trans-pent-2-ene
Propanol Propan-2-ol Propan-2-ether
Optical Isomerism (Enantiomers)
Nucleophilic Substitution A nucleophile replaces another one on an atom.
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