Biology 2a

Flashcards by jadeamber68, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by jadeamber68 almost 6 years ago


Cells, organs and populations

Resource summary

Question Answer
What makes up an animal cell?
What is the purpose of a nucleus in a cell? It contains genetic material that controls the cell.
What is the purpose of a cytoplasm in a cell? This is where most of the chemical reactions happen. It contains enzymes.
What is the purpose of a cell membrane? Holds the cell together and controls what goes in and out.
What is the purpose of a mitochondria in a cell? This is where most of the reactions for respiration takes place.
What is the purpose of ribosomes in a cell? This is where proteins are made.
What do plant cells have that animal cells don't have? What are there purposes? Cell wall - (made of cellulose) supports and strengthens cell. Vacuole - contains cell sap Chloroplasts - (contains chlorophyll) where photosynthesis occurs
Bacterial Cells have no...? ...Nucleus. They are single-celled microorganisms. It has a cytoplasm, cell membrane and a cell wall. Genetic material floats in the cytoplasm.
What is Diffusion? The spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
Where does diffusion happen? Solutions and gases - the particles are free to move around.
The bigger the difference in concentration of particles...? ...The faster the diffusion rate.
Dissolved substances can move in and out of cells by...? ...Diffusion. Only very small molecules can diffuse through cell membranes though (e.g. oxygen).
How are red blood cells adapted to carry oxygen? Concave shape- bigger surface area for absorbing oxygen. Heamoglobin- pigment that absorbs oxygen No nucleus- leaves more room to carry oxygen.
How are sperm and egg cells specialised for reproduction? Egg cell: Contains huge food reserves to feed the embryo. Has a large surface area-increases the chance of a sperm penetrating it. Sperm: Pointed head means that it can penetrate egg cell. Long tail and streamlined head to help swim to the egg.
Large multicellular organisms are made up of...? ...organ systems.
Similar cells are organised into to...? ...Tissues. These work together to perform a particular function. Muscular, Glandular, Epithelial.
Organs are organised into...? ...Organ systems. These work together to perform a particular function. E.g. the digestive system breaks down food.
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
What is the purpose of photosynthesis in plants? It is the process in which a plant produces food (glucose)
Where does photosynthesis occur? In leaves, more specifically in chloroplasts. These contain chlorophyll which absorbs sunlight, this is used as energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose.
What is the rate of photosynthesis affected by? Light intensity, volume of CO2, temperature.
How do plants use glucose? Respiration Making cell walls Making proteins Storing in seeds Stored as starch
Organisms are affected by environmental factors such as? Temperature, amount of water, availability of oxygen and carbon dioxide, availability of nutrients, amount of light.
How are quadrats used? Place a 1m by 1m quadrat on the ground at a random point and count all the organisms. Repeat this. The work out the mean amount of organisms in the sample area.
How do transects work? A line is marked out in the areas using a tape measure. Data is collected along the line.
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