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Paper 2 question 2 GCSE EDUQAS
Martina Moran
Flashcards by Martina Moran, updated more than 1 year ago
Martina Moran
Created by Martina Moran over 1 year ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
DEFINE ABSOLUTISM Something is always morally right or morally wrong regardless of the circumstances
DEFINE RELATIVISM Something is morally right or wrong dependent on the circumstance
WHAT ARE THE 5 PURPOSES OF PUNISHMENT 1. Retribution - Revenge 2. Reformation - Change 3. Deterrence - Put off 4. Protection - Protect 5. Vindication -uphold the Law
HOW DOES REFORMATION SUPPORT CHRISTIAN IDEAS OF PUNISHMENT 1.Reformation is at the heart of punishment and primary purpose of punishment 2. No one is perfect - but sin/crime comes from a place of brokeness not wholeness 2. Jesus died to atone for sin 3. Examples of the impact of Jesus on people to change - St Paul/Matthew/John Pridmore 4. If people truly change for the better they will not commit crime again 5. It is therefore right and proper to punish to help people change
Give 2 sayings of Jesus on forgiveness from Matthew's Gospel 'Forgive, not 7 times, but 77 times' & 'If you forgive others God will forgive you; but if you do not forgive, God will not forgive you'
What does Jesus mean when he says forgive 77 times not 7 times Meaning forgive every time Forgiveness is limitless. It is a duty to forgive
What does it mean when Jesus says 'If you do not forgive your heavenly father will not forgive you!' Jesus warns about being hypocritical - expecting forgiveness but not giving it to others We need forgiveness from God as we are not perfect - we should not judge others - we don't know their struggles
Explain HOW it is compatible to punish someone AND forgive. Forgiveness is not about 'letting someone off the hook' BUT retribution is not the motivation of a Christian We should punish to reform, deter, and protect others But holding onto bitterness and anger hurts us more We will need God's help to forgive others
WHAT IS MEANT BY CAPTIAL PUNISHMENT The execution of a person by the state/government for a (serious) crime they have been found guilty of
HOW HAS THE CATHOLIC CHURCH'S TEACHING ABOUT CAPITAL PUNISHMENT CHANGED/DEVELOPED OVER TIME 1. In the past it never challenged it. -Death penalty was accepted in general. They used it themselves 2. As society progressed so has understandings about punishment and it as been said to be only used 'rarely' 3. Recently, Pope Francis has spoken out against it completely
What is St Augustine's teaching about Capital punishment The death penalty was a common practice in St Augustine's time - he therefore accepts its reality but teaches that: 1. 'We pity the person but hate the offence or transgression' - hate the sin/love the sinner 2. It is right to punish so they can reform : 'the less do we want the offender to die without correcting his vices.' 3. Reform is essential in this life: 'There is no space to reform character except in this life. 4. If they are executed before they reform then eternal punishment awaits the soul 'punishment will end this life..but once it is ended they will not be able to bring this punishment to an end.
What does Pope John Paul II teach about Capital Punishment In his document Evangelium Vitae (the Gospel of life) Pope JP 2nd says i) We should punish the offender 'Public authority must impose an adequate punishment for the crime ii) We should protect society- 'authority must fulfil the purpose of defending other peoples safety. iii) Help the offender reform 'an adequate punishment as a condition for the offender to regain his/her freedom' iv) Avoid executing someone to achieve the above 'if bloodless means are sufficient we should limit ourselves to such means.' 'ought not go to the extremes of executing'.. v) Although there may be the an exception to the rule ' when it would not be possible to protect society' 'In cases of absolute necessity.'
What is the document that Pope John Paul II wrote about Capital Punishment Evangelium Vitae which means the 'Gospel of life'
What does Pope Francis say about the death penalty 'All men and women of good will should work to abolish the death penalty.' meaning that we should do everything to ban it
Biblical quotes sometimes used in favour of the death penalty (Capital Punishment An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a life for a life' - meaning that justice is served; things are balanced up. 'Whoever sheds human blood, by humans shall their blood be shed.' Meaning if you take a life you will forfeit yours 'Give to ceasar what is caesars and to God what belongs to God ' - meaning that if the law of the land uses CP then it is acceptable.
BIBLICAL QUOTES TO USE AGAINS CAPITAL PUNISHMENT Jesus said 'Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you.' And also 'Turn the other cheek' CP is a form of revenge and denies this teaching A hallmark of Jesus teaching is about the chance to reform 'Repent and believe the good News' 2. Do not Kill... (does that need to be any clearer?)
General arguments in favour of Capital Punishment (death penalty) 1. acts as a deterrent 2. Gives justice/closure to the victims family. 3. Rarely needed - but still needed in some cases (JPii) 4. Orders society so is in keeping with Aquinas Natural Law precepts
General arguments against Capital Punishment 1. Doesn't act as a deterrent - more violent crime in states where there is the death penalty 2. Introduces disorder into society - violence from the top 3. Its never needed - our penal systems are better 4. Against human dignity. 5. Possibility of executing an innocent
What is meant by SALVATION & How is it linked to the INCARNATION Salvation means to be saved. Incarnation is the belief that Jesus is both fully human and fully divine. Jesus has to be divine in order to have the power to save us and human in order for us to be able to relate. The incarnation is the means by which God brings us salvation
How does Jesus' death achieve salvation 1. Jesus' death is seen as an ATONEMENT for sin 2. Jesus puts right what Adam did wrong. - saves us from Original Sin/ frees us from bondage of sin 3. Jesus pays the price for sin 4. Jesus is the new SACRIFICE - 'lamb of God' 5. 'For God so loved the world that he sent his only son'
Why is the Mass called 'the sacrifice of the Mass' 1. AT MASS Catholics remember the last supper and death of Jesus on the Cross 2. Links to the idea that Jesus' death is a sacrifice which achieves out salvation 3. Jesus replaces the lamb at the Passover and is called the 'lamb of God' 4. Mass is offered at an altar - a place of Sacrifice
Why is it important for Christians to partake in salvation 1. Jesus' death and resurrection on their own is not enough 2. We have to do some work for our salvation too. 3. We must try to live by the Gospel 4. God send's us 'grace' to help us. 5. We must be open to God's grace in our lives
What is meant by Grace Actual Grace Sanctifying Grace Grace = God's help in our lives Catholics believe Grace is experienced in 2 ways - ACTUAL AND SANCTIFYING Actual = God's help in our actions Sanctifying = God's help received in the sacraments
What are the 7 sacraments Group them in terms of initiation/Healing and Vocation Sacraments of initiation (belonging) BAPTISM, CONFIRMATION AND EUCHARIST Sacraments of healing RECONCILIATION and Anointing of the SICK Sacraments of Vocation Marriage and Ordination
How to the sacraments help us gain salvation Sacraments give us sanctifying grace which changes us and makes us holy Baptism gives us the grace to fight sin and evil Confirmation gives us the grace to be witnesses to Jesus in the world Eucharist regularly gives us God's grace in our day to day lives - like a spiritual food Reconciliation -grace to start again and move forward Anointing of the sick - grace to face illness and/or death Marriage and ordination God's help in our lives of service God meets us at special moments in our lives They build up and strengthen our relationship with God
What is the sacramental nature of reality? 1. A sacrament is an outward sign of inward grace given to the soul. 2. Creation shows the presence of God and God's love is all around us - not distant 3. The church gives us the sacraments as a way to experience God's grace in different aspects of our lives.
What is a fundamental Christian attitude towards salvation (exclusive attitude) 1. Only Christians can be saved. 2. Jesus said 'I am the way, the truth and the life. No one can come to the father except through me.' meaning Jesus is the only way to salvation. 3. Jesus said 'He who is baptised is saved and he who is not baptised is condemned'
What is a Catholic Christian attitude towards salvation Catholic Christians take an inclusive approach to salvation All people can be saved - it is by our actions we are judged - (final judgement - whatever you did to the least of my bros and sis you did for me) People recognise Jesus by their actions Karl Rahner - the 'anonymous Christian' 'In my father's house there are many rooms!'
What is a Liberal Christian attitude to salvation Liberal Christians take a pluralistic approach All are saved and Jesus is just one route to the ultimate God Other religions are equally valid and teach good things Our actions determine salvation not our religious ideology John Hick argues for this approach
WHAT IS EVANGELISATION Evangelisation is to spread the good news Christianity is a proselytizing religion - it seeks converts
WHAT IS A FUNDAMENTAL CHRISTAIN ATTITUDE TOWARDS EVANGELIZATION 1. Evangelisation is a Christian duty 'Go make disciples of all nations and baptise them in the name of the Fr/Son/Spirit 2. Take Bible literally so this is a direct instruction 3. Essential - because only Christians can be saved so must evangelise to save people
What is a Catholic attitude towards evangelisation 1. Catholics haev an inclusive view of salvation 2.Evangelisation is important because Jesus said 'Go make disciples...' 3. However, its more about spreading the love of God rather than insisting people are Christian - although ideally they will want to be by our example. 4. We have a duty to share the Gospel ' 5. Pope Francis said in evangelii Gaudium ' The Gospel is not simply a me and God experience' meaning its not something private and should be shared. 6. Part of evangelisation is helping the poor and vulnerable
What do Catholics believe about the real presence? 1. Jesus is really present in the Eucharist 2. During the consecration the bread and wine change substance 'TRANSUBSTANTIATION' 3. The bread and wine become the 'body. blood, soul and divinity' of Jesus (CCC) 4. At Mass, at communion Catholics receive Jesus fully, in this very unique way - both a physical and spiritual encounter.
How is it possible for there to be a hell if God is omnibenevolent 1. God is all loving 2. Therefore, his loving nature means that he will allow us to choose or reject him 3. If a person, in full knowledge, rejects God's goodness, they freely choose hell for themselves 4. It is the person who sends themselves to hell. 5. Only God can know if a person does this as he is omniscient so he can judge fairly
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