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c1 flash cards

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Question Answer
what gases are the atmosphere mainly made up of? Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon, water vapor, carbon dioxide and other gases
what percentages of nitrogen, oxygen and argon are there in the atmosphere? nitrogen - 78% oxygen - 21% argon - 1%
what is released into the atmosphere by human activity? -gases -particulates
name an environmental process that can add gases and particulates to our atmosphere volcanic eruptions
how was the Earths early atmosphere formed and what did it mainly consist of? it was formed by volcanic eruptions and mainly consisted of carbon dioxide and water
how were oceans formed when the Earth cooled? the water vapor condensed
how did the evolution of photosynthesizing organisms change the atmosphere? they added oxygen and removed carbon dioxide
as well as photosynthesis how else was CO2 removed from the atmosphere and what did the CO2 then form? the carbon dioxide was removed by dissolving in the oceans, this then formed sedimentary rocks and this lead to the formation of fossil fuels
what have humans added to the atmosphere to change its composition? -carbon monoxide -nitrogen oxides -sulfur dioxide -carbon dioxide (extra) -particulates
what can human released pollutants do to humans? (give an example) carbon monoxide reduces the amount of oxygen that the blood can carry
how can human released pollutants affect animals? (give an example) Sulfur dioxide causes acid rain (fish die, indirectly affect humans)
how are the concentrations of pollutants measured in the air? by using PPB (parts per billion) or PPM (parts per million)
why is it important to repeat measurements of pollutant concentration? the concentration could increase/decrease at different points in the day (more cars producing pollutants in the day than at night) and by repeating the measurement you can calculate a mean, a good estimate of the true value
what particles are elements made from? atoms
how do molecules form? atoms join together
does each element has a unique atom? yes
how do compounds form? when two or more atoms chemically combine
what happens to a reactant to form a product? they are rearranged by separation and then being joined in a different way
what does it mean when someone says that mass is conserved in a chemical reaction? no atoms are created or destroyed and therefore the mass of the product is the same as the mass of the reactants
what is coal mainly made up of? carbon dioxide
what fuels are mainly compounds of hydrogen and carbon? -petrol -diesel fuel -fuel oil
when fuels burn what combines with atoms of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and/or water? carbon and/or hydrogen
what happens when a fuel reacts with oxygen? oxidation
what is a loss of oxygen an example of and what does this mean? it is an example of reduction and this means that combustion reactions involve oxidation
what is oxidation? when a substance gains oxygen
why do fuels burn more rapidly in pure oxygen than in air? because there are more oxygen for it to react with
can oxygen be obtained from the atmosphere and what can it be used to support? yes. it can be used to support combustion
why is sulfur dioxide produced is a fuel containing sulfur is burnt? the sulfur reacts with the oxygen
what compounds are formed when burning fossil fuels? -carbon dioxide -sulfur dioxide -carbon monoxide and carbon particulates (incomplete burning) -nitrogen oxides (oxygen + nitrogen in engines)
what are the chemical formulas for -carbon monoxide -carbon dioxide -sulfur dioxide -nitrogen monoxide -nitrogen dioxide -water? -CO -CO2 -SO2 -NO -NO2 -H2O
how is nitrogen monoxide formed? by combustion of fuels in the air
what is nitrogen oxide oxidized into? nitrogen dioxide
where do -particulate carbon -sulfur dioxide -carbon dioxide go after combustion? -particulate carbon is deposited on surfaces -sulfur dioxide react with water and oxygen to produce acid rain -carbon dioxide is used in photosynthesis or is dissolved in the sea
how can we reduce pollution from burning fossil fuels in power stations? -use less electricity -remove sulfur dioxide from flue gasses emitted by coal burning power stations
how is the acid gas, sulfur dioxide removed from glue gases? -using an alkaline slurry (e.f. a spray of calcium oxide and water) -sea water
what is the only way of producing less carbon dioxide? burn less fossil fuels
how can atmospheric pollution caused by exhaust emissions be reduced? -burning less fuel (more efficient engines) -using low sulfur fuels -using catalytic converters -make more people use public transport -having legal limits of exhaust emissions
what does a catalytic converter do? it reduces nitrogen monoxide to just nitrogen by loss of oxygen, and carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide by gain of oxygen
what other things can we use as alternatives to fossil fuels, what are their problems? -electricity (must be produced renewably) -biofuels (they use up valuable farm land)
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