Wood

Mike Stokes
Flashcards by Mike Stokes, updated more than 1 year ago
Mike Stokes
Created by Mike Stokes almost 6 years ago
409
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Flash cards to revise wood for RM test.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Redwood Scots pine, pine, fir Soft wood: Fairly cheap and readily available. Easy to work and finishes well. Durable. Suitable for all types of inside work. Used for wood turning. Can be used outside with suitable preservatives.
Parana Pine Softwood: The best quality internal softwood. attractive grain. Available in long and wide boards. Works easily. Staircases and furniture
Cedar Softwood: Resistant to insect attack because of natural preservative oils. Weather and dry rot. Knot free. Very durable. Very easy to work. Cladding for the outside of buildings
Douglas Fir Softwood: Water resistant. Knot free. durable and easy to work. Outside construction. Ladders and masts.
Whitewood Spruce Softwood: Resistant to splitting. Easy to work. General outside work
Beech Hardwood: Hard, tough and very strong. The close grain withstands wear and shocks. A very Hard wood used for furniture, floors, veneers and wooden toys.
Oak Hardwood: Very strong and durable. It is both hard and strong. Easier to use than beech. Boat building, garden furniture, quality furniture and gate posts.
Teak Hardwood: It is naturally durable to moisture because of it's oil content. It does not corrode iron and steel fittings. it is hard and strong. Ships decks, garden furniture, veneers.
Mahogany Hardwood: Available in wide and long boards. easy to work, fairly strong. Shop fittings, furniture, veneers
Walnut Hardwood: Attractive appearance. Available in larger sizes. High class furniture. Sometimes used as teak substitute in furniture.
BLOCKBOARD Man made: This is built up with a core of softwood strips bonded together with adhesive and covered with a sheet of plywood on either side. Used as a building material and for furniture manufacture including fitted kitchens / bedrooms.
CHIPBOARD Man made: This is made up of small chips of wood bonded together with resin and formed into sheets by compression. It is not as strong as plywood and block board but it is not expensive. Chipboard is often covered with a plastic laminate or wood veneer and used in furniture.
HARDBOARD Man made: This is made from wood fibers that have been pulped. The pulp is put under pressure until the fibers bond to produce a tough board that is smooth on one side and rough on the other. It is not as strong as the other boards.
MEDIUM DENSITY FIBRE BOARD (MDF) Man made: A quality board, relatively cheap. This board is composed of fine wood dust and resin pressed into a board. This material can be worked, shaped and machined easily. Paint can be applied to it without the need for an undercoat or primer. Used in the building and furniture trades.
PLYWOOD Man made: This is made from veneers (plies) of timber with each grain layer being at right angles to each other and bonded together by resin and pressure. A number of grades are available, designed to suit a variety of situations. 1. Marine plywood that is moisture resistant. 2. Weather and boil proof plywood. 3. Boil resistant plywood. 4. Interior plywood.
What would you use to cut curved lines in wood? Coping saw, Fretsaw, Jig saw, Band saw (teachers only)
What would you use to make holes in wood? Drilling machine (bench, pillar, electric hand drill) and suitable drill bits
What would you use to create round shapes of different diameters out of wood? Wood turning lathe
What would you use to cut grooves and slots in wood? Hand router or Computer Numerical Control (CNC) milling machine
Laminating Wood is usually bent by laminating. This is done by cutting thin strips of wood, putting glue on the strips and clamping them into a mould.
Name the three methods to bend wood? Laminating Steaming Kerf-cutting
Varnishes and lacquers available in oil, water and solvent based types. Varnishes are normally clear or transparent and are offered in satin, matt or gloss finishes. Spray cans are suitable for small projects and there are special types available which have been developed for coating metals.
Oil Teak and comparable timbers are naturally oily. Applying teak or linseed oil provides an improved appearance within the grain of the timber. This protects the wood very well for external use. Vegetable oil can also be applied to wood which comes in contact with foods a good example is a spatula or salad server.
French polish French polish is a traditional finish which is accomplished by mixing shellac in methylated spirits. French polish is applied by brush and cloth and the finish is built up in several layers which accomplishes a very deep finish. Wax is then applied over the French polish which improves the shine.
Wood stains Wood stains are used to improve the colour of the wood and they also help to show up the grain. Wood stains are applied using a cloth. Wood stains are available in numerous colours but only work well if the stain is actually darker than the woods colour. Wood stain if used on its own only colours the wood and so does not protect it against moisture. It requires a coating of wax or varnish over the wood stain to make it weather proof. Stains are available in water or solvent based forms.
Sanding sealer Sanding sealer is normally a solvent based product like varnish which is used to seal wood to moisture. Sanding sealer is a quick drying liquid which seals the surface and raise’s the woods fibres so they can be sanded with fine glass paper. Sanding sealer is good for a first coat before applying varnish or wax.
1). Name the finishes you can use on woods? 2.) Varnishes and lacquers are available in what types? 3.) Varnishes and lacquers are available in what of finishes? 4.) How is french polish applied and finished? 5.) What is wood stain used for? 6.) When do wood stains work well? 7.) Why do you need to use wax or varnish with wood stains? 8.) What is sanding sealer good for? If you don't know the answer then go back to the specific flash card.
Timber lifecycle
SAW A Jigsaw 1 mark SAW B Coping saw 1 mark
What does this logo stand for? The Forest Stewardship Council
What does the FSC do? The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international not for-profit, multi-stakeholder organization established in 1993 to promote responsible management of the world's forests. Its main tools for achieving this are standard setting, certification and labeling of forest products.
What does sustainability mean? Plastics and metals use the earth's resources in their production. If these materials are not reused or recycled, the planet will run out of them. There is a limited amount of the ores that make metals, and a limited amount of oil from with most plastics are made. If trees are not replanted as quickly as they are felled, we will run out of timber. A material is said to be sustainable if it can be replaced continuously or if it can be recycled or reused indefinitely.
Joining wood The method used for joining wood will depend on the function, strength and quality of the product. Wood joints can be made with screws, nails, glues and knock-down components, or with frame joints, such as butt joints, halving joints, mortice-and-tenon, dovetail and box joints.
Screws Two sizes of hole are needed. The clearance hole must be very slightly bigger than the shank of the screw so that the shank can move freely in the clearance hole. The pilot hole must be smaller than the core of the screw so that the core fits tightly into it.
Nails Nails are cheaper and easier to use than screws and come in many shapes and sizes. Holes need to be drilled to prevent the wood from splitting, or when using hard woods.
Knock-down joints Knock-down (KD) joints are commonly used in flat-pack furniture, which is assembled by the customer at home. Usually KD joints are made from a plastic, such as nylon.
Frame joints Strong, permanent and neat-looking joints in wood are achieved using one of the many types of frame joint. Frame joints are right-angled, jointed frames common in furniture, boxes and many other types of assembly
More complex frame joints
PVA (polyvinyl acetate) General purpose woodwork glue. Some PVA adhesives are water resistant.
Synthetic resin (cascamite) A strong water-resistant glue for woodwork. It needs to be mixed up immediately before use.
Contact adhesive For joining polystyrene and fabrics. Also useful for fixing plastic laminates to a wooden base.
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