Additional Biology


Whole of biology
Emily England
Flashcards by Emily England, updated more than 1 year ago
Emily England
Created by Emily England about 9 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Where is bile produced and stored? Bile is produced in the liver (here, it neutralises stomach acids) Then stored in the gall bladder before being released into the small intestine.
What are the three digestive enzymes, where are they produced and what do they do? Amylase - breaks down starch into glucose & produced in the slavery glands, pancreas and the small intestine. Protease - Breaks down proteins into amino acids & produced in the pancreas, small intestine and stomach. Lipase - breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol & produced in the pancreas and small intestine.
Why does the stomach produce hydrochloric acid? It kills bacteria and gives the right PH level for protease to work
What 3 things do plant cells have that animal cells don't? Cell wall Permanent Vacuole Chloroplasts
where is the genetic material found in bacteria cells? Why? The cytoplasm because it doesn't have a nucleus.
How is the sperm cell adapted for swimming to the egg cell? It has; Streamlined head Long tail packed with mitochondria for energy
What is an organ? A group of different tissues that work together to carry out a specific function
What do both animal and plant cells contain? Cell membrane mitochondria ribosomes nucleus cytroplasm
How s a palisade leaf cell adapted for photosynthesis? It has; thin shape Packed with chloroplasts Tall shape
Why is glucose turned into starch in plants? Glucose is insoluble & doesn't absorb water like starch.
The functions of proteins in living cells? Proteins act as; catalysts hormones antibodies structural components of tissues
Why a enzyme-catalysed reaction stops at a certain temperature? It stops at a certain temperature because if it goes above 37 degrees the bond holding the enzyme together breaks which denatures the enzyme.
Where is the genetic material found in plants, animals and yeast cells? The nucleus
What is the green substance in leaves? chlorophyll which is in the chloroplasts.
what tissues are leaves made out of? Xylem phloem mesophyll epidermal
what are the plant organs? Roots Stem Leaves
Why is it important a plant is at the correct temperature? Too hot (over 45 degrees) and the enzyme denatures Too cold and the enzyme works slowly
what is a tissue? A group of similar cells that work together to carry out a specific function.
What substances can diffuse through the cell membrane? What substances can't? substances that can; amino acids oxygen water glucose Substances that can't; starch & proteins
What is diffusion? Diffusion is the spreading out of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low oncentration
What is a catalyst? a substance which speeds up a reaction without being used up or changed.
what is the equation for photosynthesis? Carbon Dioxide + water ---> glucose + oxygen
how is glucose used in plants? Respiration Making cellulose for cell walls Making proteins Making Seeds Turning into starch
What s a habitat? Where an organism lives
What are the organ systems in the human body? Digestive system Nervous system Respiratory system reproductive system
What are organ systems? A group of organs that work together to carry out a certain function
What are he environmental factors that effects where an organism lives? Temperature water carbon dioxide light intensity nutrients oxygen
What tissues are in the human stomach and animals? Muscular tissues glandular tissue epithelial tissue
How do you use quadrats to find out how common an organism is? 1) Randomly place quadrat in 1st sample area 2) Count all organisms in quadrat 3) Repeat 1 to 2 multiply times 4) Work out the mean 5) Repeat 1 to 4 on 2nd sample area 6) Compare mean results
What do guard cells do? Open and close stomata on leaves depending on light allowing gas exchanges and it controls water loss
What do enzymes do? reduces need for high temperatures therefore only speeding up the useful reactions.
What is the digestive system made up of? Liver small intestine large intestine stomach salivary gland pancreas
How do you carry out a transect study to find out the distribution of an organism? 1) Mark out line in sample area 2) Count organisms along the line
What does the epithelial tissue do? It covers the some parts of the body.
Egg Cell Carries female DNA Nourishes the embryo Carries food reserves for embryo
What does the glandular tissue do? Produces substances such as; Enzymes Hormones
What is photosynthesis? When a plant absorbs sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose.
What does the muscular tissue do? Contracts the muscles bring about movement
What are the limiting factors for photosynthesis? Carbon dioxide Light intensity temperature
Advantages of farmers using greenhouses? Artificial lights - photosynthesis can continue beyond daylight Artificial heater - increase the rate of photosynthesis Paraffin lamps - produce heat, light and carbon dioxide which will increase the rate of photosynthesis.
What do yeast cells contain? Nucleus cell membrane cell wall cytroplasms
what are quadrats + transects used to study? Quadrats - population size Transects - distribution of an organism
Red blood cells Carries oxygen around the body Packed with haemoglobin have no nucleus large surface area for absorbing oxygen
How do you work out the population size using quadrats? 1) find the mean number of organisms 2) multiply by total area
How do you work out the mean of quadrats for the distribution of an organism? Total number of organisms --------------------------------------------- Total number of quadrats
What is the reliability of using quadrats and transects? Good tools Using large sample area Repeating
What is the validity when using transects or quadrats? Must answer question Control all variables Use random sampling
Enzymes - Special shapes so they only catalyst one reaction - Digestive enzymes; such as amylase, protease and lipase break down big molecules into small ones
What is respiration? The process of releasing energy from glucose
what is differentiation? process that changes a cell to become specalised
What did Mendel do? - Performed genetic experiments with pea plants - He noted how characteristics in plants were passed on from one generation to the next.
what is the equation for Aerobic respiration? Glucose + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water + energy
What is the energy by aerobic respiration used for? In animals, To contract muscles. In mammals, keep body temperature steady In plants, Build sugars, nitrates & nutrients into amino acids.
When is anaerobic respiration used? When there is no oxygen intake such as, in exercise
What is he equation for anaerobic respiration? Glucose ---> energy + lactic acid
How to repay an oxygen debt? Breathing hard to get oxygen into the blood so it can remove the lactic acid by oxidising it to CO2 and water.
what are enzymes used in? protease & lipase used in Biological detergents because they are protein digesting enzymes. To change foods - Starch syrup to sugar syrup In Industry to speed up reactions
Advantages and disadvantages of using enzymes in industry? Advantages: Reduces cost Reduces use of energy biogradable so less pollution Disadvantages: Expensive Tightly controlled
How does DNA control the activities in a cell? Contains instructions to put organisms together and make it work
What is mitosis? A cell reproducing itself by splitting to form two identical offsprings
What is meiosis? Sexual reproduction to form a new individual containing DNA from both female and male.
what is an allele? A different version of the same gene
What is meant by an organism being heterozygous? 2 Alleles from a particular gene are different
what is meant by a organism being homozygous? 2 Alleles being the same from a particular gene
How can fossils form? Gradual replacement Casts or impressions Preservation
factors which can lead to a species becoming extinct? new predators new disease new species catastrophic event
what is speciation? The development of a new species
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