Biology 1 - Flash Cards

Elysia Morrison
Flashcards by Elysia Morrison, updated more than 1 year ago
Elysia Morrison
Created by Elysia Morrison over 7 years ago
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You and Your Genes

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Question Answer
What is the genetic material arranged in, in the nucleus? Chromosomes.
How many pairs of chromosomes are in a human cell nucleus? 23 pairs.
What is a chromosome? A long molecule of DNA.
What is a gene? A short length of a chromosome.
What do genes control? Development of characteristics.
What are different versions of the same gene called? An allele.
What is a gene, and what does it do? It is a code for making a certain protein.
What are structural proteins? Part of things like skin, hair and blood.
What are functional proteins? Things like enzymes that aid digestion.
What is an organism's genotype? All the genes it has.
What are the characteristics an organism displays called? Its phenotype.
How many chromosomes do a sex cell contain? 23 SINGLE chromosomes.
What are the two types of alleles? Dominant and recessive.
How can you work out a genetic cross? By using a Punnett Square.
What is the 23rd pair of chromosomes labelled? XY.
What do the 23rd pair of chromosomes decide? Whether you turn out male or female.
What does the Y chromosomes cause? Male characteristics.
What chromosomes do you need to be female? XX.
What does the Y chromosome have in it? A protein that produces the development of testes.
How are genetic disorders inherited? When one or both parents pass on a faulty allele.
Generally, what allele causes disorders? Recessive.
What is a carrier? Someone who carries one copy of the faulty allele, and won't show the symptoms.
What allele is Cystic Fibrosis caused by? Recessive.
What allele is Huntington's caused by? Dominant.
Why is there issues with genetic testing? It's controversial and has questionable ethics, not 100% accurate.
What is sexual reproduction? Reproducing offspring that are genetically different.
What is asexual reproduction? Forming clones of the parent.
What are stem cells? Cells that become other types of cells, not specialised.
What can stem cells be used for? Treating a variety of diseases.
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