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Questions and answers on educational policy relating to class, gender and ethnicity

Resource summary

Question Answer
What is educational policy? Government strategies for education, introduced through legal changes and instructions to schools
Until what century was education only provided by churches and private schools? 19th Century
However, what did industrialisation create the need for and what did this lead to? An educated workforce - this lead to the development of compulsory, state run education
Miriam Davis identifies three phases of the development of state education in the UK. When was the first phase? 1870-1944
In this first phase, what did the middle class receive and what did the working class receive? Middle class - academic education Working class - elementary education
Why was this? To prepare the middle class for professional careers, and to prepare working class for basic manual work
Which class left school early? The working class
When was phase 2? 1944-1988
Until 1965, what name was given to this system? The tripartite system
Which exam did the tripartite system include? The 11+
What were the three secondary schools that pupils would be allocated to based on their results from the 11+? Grammar schools, secondary moderns and technical colleges
In practice, what did this do? Channelled working class pupils into secondary moderns and non-academic education and channelled middle class pupils into grammar schools
What name was given to the system from 1965? The comprehensive system
What did this do? Replaced most grammar and secondary modern schools with comprehensive schools
Why was this different? All pupils - middle and working class - attended comprehensive schools
How did the comprehensive system still reproduce inequalities? Most schools streamed their pupils - working class pupils disproportionately placed in lower streams
Which government set up the Education Reform Act and in what year? Conservative government set up the ERA in 1988
What was at the core of the education reform act? Marketisation
What have marketisation policies since 1988 introduced and what have they reduced? Introduced and education market, competition and parental choice Reduced state control over education
Who's argument was this based on? New Right
What is this argument? Competition forces schools to improve in order to attract 'customers' and therefore this raises standard
Was does David call this? Parentocracy
Give 6 examples of marketisation policies Ofsted reports Formula funding Open enrolment Exam league tables Business sponsorship Specialist schools
Who argues that marketisation reproduces inequality? Ball and Whitty
How do they argue marketisation reproduces inequality? Publication of league tables means schools with good results are more in demand with parents, so these schools can be more selective with who they enroll
Who do Ball and Whitty argue these schools select? High achieving pupils - who are more likely to be middle class (and female)
What is formula funding? Schools are funded according to the numbers they attract
How does this create inequality? Popular schools (the ones with good results) will receive more money and can afford to hire better qualified teachers and more resources
What does this lead to? These schools attracting high achieving pupils and so leading to even better results
Who benefits from this process? The middle class
Ball also argues that marketisation also ____________ inequality Legitimates
How does Ball argue this is the case? Parentocracy puts a child achievement in the hands of the parent - therefore any differences in achievement are seen as the parents fault rather than the schools fault for being unfair
Who argues that in reality, middle class parents have more economic and cultural capital and therefore more choice? (give an example of how this benefits them) Gerwitz and others. Middle class parents are able to move into a catchment area of a better school
What did the New Labour governments after 1997 increase? Spending on education
What were the two aims of the New Labour government from 1997? Promoting diversity and choice, reducing inequality of opportunity
How did New Labour promote diversity choice and by what policies? By maintaining the education market. Policies included competition between schools, creating specialist schools and setting up academies
What policies did New Labour introduce that aimed to reduce inequality of opportunity in the education system? Educational Maintenance Allowances, Education Action Zones and Aim Higher
Why do people criticise New Labour policies for being contradictory? EMAs helped poorer pupils stay on post-16, but then tuition fee's were introduced
What education system have New Labour left untouched? The private education system
What do some critics argue 'choice' and 'diversity' are just nice words for and why? 'Inequality' - the education market ensures that working class pupils remain disadvantaged
What have been genuine achievements of New Labour educational policies? More education spending and focus on a 'learning society'
Evidence that academies have raise standards is ______ Mixed
How many stages have policies relating to ethnicity gone through? 3
When was the first stage and what was the aim? Through the 60's and 70's - the aim was to encourage assimilation
What is assimilation? The process by which people of a group acquire the social characteristics (ie culture) of another group
Give an example of a program through which assimilation was performed? English as a Second Language programmes
In what years was the second phase of ethnic related policies? Through the 80's and 90's
What did the aim switch to in the second phase? Valuing all cultures through multicultural education polices - such as Black Studies in the mainstream curriculum
The third stage is more recent. What has the focus been? Social inclusion
What does this mean? The legal duty of schools to promote racial equality
Who argues that even the more recent policies are too limited in scope? Mirza
Give some examples of policies aimed at giving girls and boys equal opportunities GIST & WISE - encouraging girls into science and technolgy The National Curriculum (1988) - boys and girls largely study the same subjects
What do policies like this result in? Meritocracy
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