C Programming

Miki Rana
Flashcards by , created over 4 years ago

Notes on C language for Programming module of Comp Sci

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Miki Rana
Created by Miki Rana over 4 years ago
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Question Answer
stdio.h Contains input and output functions, types, and macro definitions. This library is used by most C programs and represents almost 1/3 of entire C libraries
string.h Contains functions for manipulating strings
math.h Contains mathematical functions
stdlib.h Contains utility functions for number conversion, storage allocation etc.
Translating Stage of Compilation Compiler translates high-level language in .i file to low-level Assembly language instructions. Generated file is .s file
Assembly Stage of Compilation Assembler converts assembly language to machine code. Generated object file contains conversion in binary and is .o file
Linking Stage of Compilation Linker combines one or more binary object .o files into single executable file. Generated file is in binary and has .exe file
Variables A container in C which a data value can be stored inside the computer's memory
char Single byte storing 1 character
int Stores integer [100]
float Stores floating-point to 6 decimal places [0.123456]
double Stores floating-point to 10 decimal places [0.0123456789]
Declaring Variables Data type and variable name written, followed by ";" [ int car_number; ]
Initialising Variables When a value is assigned to a variable [ int car_number = 0; ]
%d Specifier for integers -32768 to +32767 [6554]
%f Specifier for floating-point [2.1564]
%c Specifier for a character [M]
%s Specifier for a string of characters [Hello World]
scanf() Requires 2 arguments in the brackets specifying type of data inputted and where to store it to
long int Usually default of int and has range of values from -2,147,483,647 to +2,147,483,648
short int Saves memory space and has range of values from -32,768 to +32,767
Static Variable Defined outside function, can be used inside using "extern int [variable name];"
Casting Process of forcing a variable into a variable of a different data type variable2 = (modifier data-type) variable1; [ float2int = (int)num; ]