Science Final Exam 2015

Alexa C
Flashcards by Alexa C, updated more than 1 year ago
Alexa C
Created by Alexa C almost 6 years ago
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Science Gr.8 Final Exam flashcards.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Arete Narrow ridge formed when 2 cirques form on either side of a glacier.
Cave A large underground hollow in rock.
Condensation The change of state from a gas to a liquid.
Crevasses Deep cracks in glaciers.
Delta Fan shaped area of rock deposits.
Density Mass over volume. Measured in g/mL or g/cm3. Is temperature sensitive. The higher the temp, the higher the speed of the particles moving, and more space between particles which means lower density.
Deposition When the fragments of rock find a new home. Sediments are deposited in river deltas, and can be suppressed into a sedimentary rock over millions of years.
Wind Erosion Wind blows the rock fragments away.
Water Erosion Moving water causes rock to move. Rivers form V shaped valleys.
Erosion The process of moving the fragments of rock to a new location.
Erratic Random rock in the middle of nowhere. Example: White Rock.
Esker Winding ridge of earth formed at the edges of streams that flowed under retreating glaciers.
Evaporation A change of state from a liquid to a gas.
Fiord U shaped valley that has been flooded with sea water created a narrow inlet with steep cliffs.
Chemical Weathering Rock breaks up because of a chemical reaction. Can occur below the surface of the earth and increase the risk of sink holes. Example: Acid rain, animal wastes, plant and animal decomposition, lichens.
Physical Weathering Usually caused when surfaces and/or materials work against each other. Example: Frost wedging where water seeps into cracks in rock and expands as it freezes, pushing the rock apart.
Biological Weathering When physical and/or chemical weathering occurs because of plant/animal activity.
Sublimation The change of state from a solid to a gas.
Striations Scratch marks cut into rocks by glaciers.
Solidification The change of state from a liquid to a solid.
Salinity The amount of salt present. It is never static and can be affected by: Coastline, position on the globe, evaporation rates. More salinity means denser water. Salinity decreases the freezing point of water.
Freezing Point The temperature at which liquid turns to a solid.
Rapids Places of fast moving water in a steep, rocky river.
Outwash Flat areas of deposition left behind after a glacier melts. (Leaving behind garbage.)
Moraine Piles of earth and rock that collect along the leading edges and sides of an advancing glacier.
Melting The change of state from a solid to a liquid.
Landslide The movement of rock pieces from one place to another.
Karst An area of many sinkholes.
Iceberg Big chunks of glaciers floating in the ocean. They calve off a glacier and move downhill.
Hydrologist Person who studies earth's water systems and finds solutions to water quality and quantity.
Horn Pyramid shaped mountain formed between 3 cirques.
Hanging Valley U shaped valley cut off by a bigger valley created by a larger glacier.
Ground Water Water that moves into and through pores and crakcs of underground rock. It runs off.
Gravity A force that pulls all things toward the centre of earth.
Glaciers Huge masses of snow and ice. Move across the landscape. Form U shaped valleys and cause striations. They pick up rock and debris and carry it great distances.
Expansion Increased temperature, energy and size of spaces between particles leads to expansion.
Mass How much matter is in an object.
Melting The change of state from a solid to a liquid.
Volume Length X width X height
Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic energy: Energy of motion. KMT: explains what happens when energy is added or removed from the system.
KMT Explained 1. All matter is made up of tiny particles too small to see. 2. There are empty spaces between the particles. 3. The particles are constantly moving.
Density Formula Example: d= mass/volume 3.18g/2cm3 = 1.59g/cm3
Adhesion Attraction or joining of two DIFFERENT objects or fluids to each other.
Cohesion Strength with which particles of an object or a fluid bind to eachother
Circulatory System The system that moves blood throughout the body. Includes the heart, blood and blood vessels.
Waves Can differ in how much energy they carry and in how fast they travel. The matter that waves travel through is called a medium. Medium can be a solid, liquid, gas or a combination.
Amplitude Relateed to the amount of energy carried by wave. Larger amplitude -> more energy transferred. Light wave w/ large amplitude -> carries more energy and is bright. Dim light -> lower amplitude and less energy.
Crest The highest point in a wave.
Electromagnetic Transmission of energy in the form of waves that extend from the longest radio waves to the shortest gamma rays.
Energy A force acting over a distance.
Frequency Number of repetitive motions, or oscillations, that occur in a given time. Usually measured in hertz (Hz), or cycles per second.
Gamma Rays Highest energy, frequency and shortest wavelength portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Result from nuclear reactions produced by hottest region of the universe. Kill cancer cells.
Infrared Waves Type of electromagnetic radiation that, relative to light, has a longer wavelength and lower energy and frequency. Infrared radiation is referred to as heat radiation.
Microwaves Shortest wavelengths, highest frequency. Used to cook food with water particles.
Radio Waves Type of electromagnetic radiation that have the longest wavelengths and lowest energy and frequency. Different wavelengths of radio waves have different uses.
Refraction The bending or changing direction of a wave as it passes from one material to another. (Bending of light through a medium.)
Weight Force of gravity acting on an object.
Force Push or pull.
Friction Works to slow down or stop motion due to surfaces rubbing against each other.
Gravitation Pulls objects towards each other. A ball that as tossed in the air falls to the ground because of this force.
Magnetic Occurs between elements that have their electrons aligned in a particular way. Iron, nickel, cobalt.
Trough The lowest point in a wave.
Spectrum Different colours come from waves of light that travel at different wavelengths. Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet.
Ultraviolet Waves Type of electromagnetic radiation have shorter wavelengths and higher energy and frequency. Can help body produce vitamin D. Too much causes cancer.
Visible Light A mixture of all the colours of the rainbow. A wave that you can see.
Wavelength Distance from crest to crest or from trough to trough.
X-Rays Electromagnetic radiation with shorter wavelengths and higher energy and frequency than UV rays. Used to form images of bones, muscles and teeth.
Angle of Incidence The angle of an incoming light ray.
Angle of Reflection The angle of the reflected ray.
Angle of Refraction The angle of the ray of light that comes out of the boundary between the two materials, measured between the refracted rat and the normal.
Concave Mirror Is curved toward the object. Light that reaches the mirror is reflected through the focal point. Light rays are described as converging. Uses: Shaving mirrors, flashlights, spotlights.
Convex Mirror Curves outward. Light rays are reflected off of a convex mirror using a focal point behind the mirror. Light rays are diverging. Image formed is smaller than the real object and it includes a wide angle view of the area.
Planar Mirror A mirror with a flat surface. Example: Bathroom mirrors.
Convex Lens Thicker in the middle. Cause light to diverge. Used to correct far sightedness.
Concave Lens Thinner in the middle. Cause light to diverge. Used to correct near sightedness.
Converging Meeting at a point.
Diverging Spreading apart.
Focal Point Light that reaches the mirror is reflected through the focal point.
Normal An imaginary line that passes through both materials at a right angle.
Opaque Very little light travelling through. Most is absorbed or reflected.
Transparent Example: Plain glass. 100% light is refracted.
Translucent Example: Frosted glass. Not all light is refracted; some is absorbed.
Astigmatism If the shape of the cornea is irregular, light rays can focus in more than one place on the retina, resulting in this condition. It can be corrected using lenses.
Cornea A transparent layer which light passes through. Refracts the light rays. Begins to focus the light onto the rear of the eye.
Iris Located between the cornea and the lens, controls the amount of light entering the eye. It reduces the size of the pupil.
Optic Nerve Transmits visual impulses directly to the brain.
Pupil Transparent zone of the eye. Gets larger to let more light in if light levels are dim. Gets smaller to let less light in if light levels are bright. Refracted rays enter the eye through the pupil.
Retina In the back of the eye. Image formed on the retina is upside down. Cells in the retina change the image into electrical signals.
Sclera White outer layer of the eyeball. Is continuous with the cornea.
Lens Major focusing structure. Held in place by suspending ligaments to the ciliary body. Converge on the retina. Get thicker to help focus light rays from objects that are closer to you. Get thinner to help focus light rays from objects that are farther away.
Refracting Telescope Good for: Focusing on an image, viewing distant objects. magnifying the image. Difficult to form detailed images. Uses a convex lens and eyepiece.
Reflecting Telescope Good for: Viewing distant galaxies, collecting and focusing light from far away objects. Uses a concave mirror, plane mirror and convex lens.
Fiber Optics Transparent glass fibres that can transmit light from one place to another. Transmit telephone, video and internet signals. Used in medicine to transmit images of the inside of a person's body from a very small camera at one end to a monitor.
Total Internal Reflection Every time a light ray strikes the wall of the fibre it is reflected back into it.
Microscopes Use 2 convex lenses and a focal point to magnify small objects.
Blind Spot The point of entry of the optic nerve on the retina, insensitive to light.
Pressure Amount of force over a given area. Formula: P= f/a. Force (newtons), area (m2), pressure (pascals Pa)
Viscosity Resistance to flow, caused by friction.
Flow Rate Speed at which different fluids move from 1 point to another. High flowrate: low viscosity; inverse relationship.
Blood Pressure How much force you heart exerts to push blood through arteries. Risk factors for high blood pressure: diet rich in salt, stress and smoking.
Systolic Pressure n the arteries during a contraction of the heart muscle (usually between 110 and 140)
Diastolic Pressure in the arteries when the heart muscle is relaxed (usually between 70 and 90)
Asthma Disease where air flow into lungs is abnormal. Pathways to lungs constrict, breathing is difficult. Causes: Dust, exercise, stress, cold air. Meds: Inhalers
Hydraulics Study of pressure in liquids.
Pneumatics Use of gas in an enclosed system under pressure.
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