Intro to Literature I

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Flashcards on Intro to Literature I, created by hot hands on 05/25/2015.

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Textual concepts: something within the text marks it as literature i.e. special use of language
Contextual concepts: nothing within the text tells you if it is literature, the term literature is socially defined
Criteria for Literature Quantitative Criterion: There is the narrow selection, which only includes genres like narrative, fiction, poetry, dram and the broad selection, which includes all of these and also prayers, jokes, graffiti and advertisements
Criteria for Literature Qualitative Criterion: The normative definition only includes works seen as "high literature", meaning the best of the best, like Shakespeare or Schiller. The descriptive definition includes the literature that is popular
Textual concepts of Literature: real. vs fictional literariness / poeticity other specific features
real vs. fictional fictionality as a literary concept - all works of fiction are literature, literary language works are self-referential, no truth statements
mimesis imitation, realism, as close to the world as possible
poiesis creation, fantasy, deviating from the real world as close as possible
literariness / poeticity this textual aspect refers to the linguistic features of a special kind of text, special way of using language, gives rise to special way of reception
textual concepts of literature other specific features complexity (more complex than handbooks), ambiguity, deviation / defamiliarization,
Contextual concepts of literature: literature as a social practice a working definition
literature as a social practice literature is socially constructed and socially performed, embedded in literary system (publishers, book stores, cultural institutions), the institutions of this system construct a certain view of literature, therefore literature is marked by special ways of reception
literature as a working definition English literature is part of a greater field of aesthetics (sculpturing, music...), it is verbal art that shows signs of literariness and fictionality, is an Anglophone literary text and can be assigned to either: poetry, drama or narrative fiction
different readings of hamlet Hamlet as a: revenge tragedy a study on seeming and being Freudian play a study on patriarchy
hamlet as a revenge tragedy: reading is very contextual, basically states that hamlet is a revenge play (in tradition of "The Spanish Tragedy) that explores the moral ambiguity of revenge to the death
hamlet as study on seeming and being this reading focuses on the theme of role playing in hamlet, the literal role playing of the players, hamlet faking his madness,...this reading sets no context
hamlet as Freudian play focuses on hamlets actions to his father, stating the desire to slay his father Claudius and take his stance in wedding bed, this views hamlet as person, not character
hamlet as study on patriarchy focuses on Ophelia, sees her deprived of language and action
literary critisicsm concerned with all areas of literary system, meaning, author, text, reader and context. explain how texts work, what they consist of and their specific features (=analysis). Explains meaning of text (=interpretation): this produces not one definite meaning, but a range of potential meanings
meanings of a text The meanings of a text are the texts functions/effects in a relation to a specific context (like other texts of the author, texts of the same genre/period, or a general cultural context). We differentiate between innertextual (=remain in text) and extratextual (=relation to something outside of the text) meaning.
approach to literary criticism coherent, logical, plausible and systematic argumentation, which creates intersubjectivity!
Different schools, approaches and methods of literary criticism: 1) centering on literary context 2) author-centered 3) context-centered 4) text-centered 5) reader-centered
approaches centering on literary context studies on literary sources and influences literary sociology studies on intertextuality and intermediality
author-centered approaches biographical approach psychoanalytical approach
context-centered approach feminist literary criticism marxist - " - post-colonial theory new historicism cultural studies
text-centered approaches new criticism / close reading structuralism post-structuralism
reader-centered approaches reader-response criticism cognitive poetics empirical reception studies history of reception and effect of works
Roman Jakobson assigned six functions of language Emotive/expressive function Conative function Referential function Phatic function Metalingual function Poetic function
Emotive/expressive function: The addresser conveys his attitude towards the subject
Conative function: directed towards the addressee, aims to influence the opinions and behaviour of him
Referential function: denotes the relationship of the message to objects, facts or reality
Phatic function: related to the channel of communication, the establishment and maintenance of the channel
Metalingual function: the way in which the linguistic code is thematised or highlighted
Poetic function: is based on a reflexive reference made within a message to its own form and structure
The literary system is a network of relations consisting not only of literary texts, but also the people that produce, read, publish mediate and process the texts. The literary system consists of four roles: production, mediation, reception and processing/criticism
the definition of literature: The most important distinction is between a broad and a narrow understanding of literature – Literature in its broadest sense is all written communication – but this definition still excludes oral literature. The many narrow definitions of literature tend to disagree each other, mostly only agreeing on the fact that literature is narrowed to poetic and imaginative texts
signals or indicators of fictionality signs that indicate that the world presented in the text is created. In non-fictional texts there are reality signals. Some of the signals for fictionality would be the ´Once upon a time…´ at the beginning of a fairy-tale, or specific representation techniques which are considered literary, like monological speech or representation of consciousness
Contextual signals of fictionality the communication situations (theatre-visits, poetry readings) or a certain publishing house (which only publishes fiction) or the external presentation of a book
paratextual signals of fictionality the title and subtitle of the book, and legal disclaimers
A characteristic feature of literature is ambiguity or polyvalence Literary texts allow various interpretations, in contrast to non-literary texts such as timetables or legal texts, where we expect straightforward information. The so called ´polyvalence – convention´ states that readers of literature expect them to be open to a variety of interpretations. Instead of one particular meaning, they should have a number of potential meanings
According to Jakobson´s communication model, literariness is determined by the dominance of a particular function of the language the poetic function. That means that the language is focused on itself. While this is true for poems, it is also true for other forms of language use, like advertisements
Literature can also be defined as non-pragmatic discourse, meaning it does not serve a certain purpose and gives no direction for actions
literary language the artificial language of the literary text
Metalanguage refers to every utterance that focuses on the code, the language itself. Metalanguage is a specialist language used for clarity, with well-defined terms and comprehensibility
textual analysis refers to a systematic examination of a text in terms of its individual components. Analysis is not the revealing of the meaning, but describing the formal and thematic characteristics of a text, describing the modes of representation which are used to generate meaning
Textual interpretation explores the potential meanings of a text and formulates hypotheses how it should be understood. It has been argued to replace the term ´interpretations´ with ´readings´, because there is not a single meaning and correct interpretation of a text
hermeneutics the process of interpreting and explaining texts. The hermeneutic circle argues that we must approach the whole via its parts and the parts via the whole. We constitute our first assumptions about the whole from our own world view, analyse the parts, draw conclusions from the parts about the whole and on the basis of this understanding, begin again to constitute the parts
Other factors that influence the interpretation of a text the author his language and world-view and the political, socio-economic and cultural context references to others texts and genres
An interpretation has to fulfil certain criterions to be regarded as scholarly: -precision and comprehensibility -terminogical clarity -logical coherence -relevance and contribution to scholarship -intersubjectivity and verifiability
The goal of interpretation is rational discourse on the thematic and structural textual characteristics of a text
STORY / PLOT Story: What IS narrated? (Who does what in which order and why?) It is the level of the surface content, treats everything in the text as if it were real. It is a strictly neutral account, a chronology, a causality Elements of the story are: Action, characters, temporal and local setting
DISCOURSE Discourse: HOW it is narrated? It moulds the story elements as to give them a certain meaning, function or effect. It affects all textual levels, such as Typography, phonetics, space, style, speech, repetition, narrative situation
Narrativity can be defined as “a representation of a causally related series of events”, or more general as “the representation of at least two real or fictive events in a time sequence, neither of which presupposes or entails the other”
The author of a story is not the mediator and the narrator/speaker (the mediating agent) is not the author, but also a fictional creation!
The plot structure can be categorized via different terms: teleological cyclical episodic static
teleological striving to a goal, an end
cyclical restoring of internal harmony
episodic no overall story, often used for sitcoms
static nothing happens, no apparent story
freytag triangle: The quest is another example for a teleological plot structure and is found throughout all times and different cultures (Odyssey, Lord of the Rings, Parsifal, D&D) In many stories there is more than one plot – these plots can be categorized into main plot and subplot, they are often connected via characters or common themes, and they can contrast or correspond to each other. The local setting of a text is a semanticised space.
Characterization We can differentiate between flat (one-dimensional) and round (pluri-dimensional) characterization. There are static and dynamic characters, main and minor characters and the protagonist and antagonist. We can differentiate between narratorial and figural, explicit and implicit characterization, and self- and alterocharacterisation.
static character If a character remains unchanged, we consider them static.
one-dimensional type character is characterized by a small, internally consistent collection of features, a multidimensional character presented as an individual with a large number of characteristics
personification a figure who embodies or personifies a single characteristic) and individual (so many different features that they seem to have a complex character, almost as if they were real
characters: individual and type Type is a character who has few specific human characteristics and individual features and is a representative of (for example) a social class. This distinction corresponds closely to the distinction of ´flat´ and ´round´ characters. In novels or tragedy, the individual characters tend to be the majority, in comedy, satire and often romance, we deal mainly with types
Characterization is concerned with the question of how characters are supplied with characteristics or semantic features
figural and authorial characterization weather the author or the characters themselves reveal the relevant information. In the case of figural characterization, the information is supplied by speech/gestures/actions of the characters
explicit characterization the traits and features are stated explicitly
implicit techniques of characterization the reader has to draw his/her own conclusions from the character
Figural forms of characterization are all the forms in which the characters themselves supply the information. This can be via explicit self-commentary, or they can characterize others. Always remember: the comments made by characters are dependent on the characters perspective and may be unreliable
Techniques of characterization used in narrative texts must be considered under the question of where information about the character originates. Is it by the narrator or another character? We can differentiate between self-characterization and characterization by others, characterization by the narrator or another character. As always, the question of the reliability of these information has to be asked
Story refers to the chronological sequence of narrated events
discourse the shaping of this material by the narrator
Story and Plot E. M. Forster was the first to differentiate between story and plot, story
story meaning ´the chronological sequence of events without consideration of causal relations´ (The King died and then the Queen died)
plot means that the various events are also linked casually and logically to one another (The King died and then the Queen died of grief
The smallest unit of a plot is called an event
Temporal Structure: We can view the temporal structure of novels within three aspects: the narrative order of events, the duration/speed of the narrative and frequency.
Order refers to the various ways of arranging events that constitute a story. There is chronological order, where the order of the narrative corresponds to the natural temporal sequence of events, the anachronic narrative, where the chronology is interrupted by either a flashback (analepsis) or a flashforward (prolepsis) or both
Discourse time refers to the time required to narrate or read a text, story time denotes the temporal duration of the action that is described in the course of a narrative – the time that passes within the narrated world
Duration is the relation of story and discourse time
Frequency deals with the question of which events are narrated. There are three possibilities: Individual events can be depicted once (singulative narration), several times (repeating narration) or an event that occurs regularly or several times but is only narrated once (iterative narration)
singulative narration Individual events can be depicted once
repeating narration events repeated several times
iterative narration an event that occurs regularly or several times but is only narrated once
Space: the word space is mostly used for novels, while place is used for drama. The idea that the settings of narratives are more than just ornaments, but fulfil a narrative function is called the semanticization of space
Different functions of space could be: the mood-invested space, where spaces and objects serve expressive (atmospheric or symbolic) functions a space of action, which primarily functions as a context or setting for the action and the observed space, which is static and supplies a panoramic overview
The narrative situation shapes the level of mediation, and concerns how a story is mediated. The first thing to consider is the form of narration
forms of narration Homodiegetic Autodiegetic Heterodiegetic
Homodiegetic (narrator is part of narrated story): 1st person narration
Autodiegetic (narrator tells own story): 1st person narration
Heterodiegetic (narrator is outside narrated story): 3rd person narration
The form of narration (Erzählformat) is another thing to consider -overt: has more direct, ´overt´ contact with narratee, often addresses readership and refers to him/herself in 1st person -covert: does not address narratee, uses no voice markers such as conative, phatic, appellative or expressive speech acts
Focalisation (Fokalisierung): This explains from which perspective the story is viewed. Who sees is not always the same as who narrates! The ´view´ is not limited to what is seen, but also feeling, knowing, believing and remembering
External Focalisation: is godlike and omniscient, no perspectivity
Internal Focalisation: shows information that can only be known by the focalizer(s), focalizer can change – this has a strong perspectivity
The focalizer is the character within the story whose focus of perception is (temporarily) taken over by the narrator (Stanzel: Reflektor)
View (Bewusstseinsdarstellung): This factor is dependent on the question whether or not we get to know the character´s thoughts. If we do, we talk about inside view, if we don´t, we talk about outside view.
The mode of narration can either be telling (diegesis, narrative mode) or showing (mimesis, dramatic mode). There is also descriptive mode and argumentative mode
The narrator and focalizer perform different functions: The narrator gives a linguistic account of the fictional world, the focalizer, on the other hand (corresponding to Stanzl´s Reflektor) functions as psychological centre of orientation through whose perceptions and consciousness the fictional events are filtered.
Extradiegetic narrators are located on the level of the narrative transmission (together with the fictional addressee) and constitutes the narrative process
An intradiegetic narrator refers to those characters who are part of the narrated story and are located on the level of the story
homodiegetic narrator If a narrator appears as a character within their own story (Stanzl: first person narrator)
A heterodiegetic narrator is located outside of the narrated world
autodiegetic narrator A homodiegetic narrator who is identical with the main protagonist and narrates his/her own story instead of just being a witness or observer
Focalization refers to the non-verbal perception of the fictional world. It includes all perceptive, cognitive and emotional elements within the consciousness of the narrator
Focalization is external if the focalizing subject is located on level of narrative transmission
Focalization is internal if the focalizer is on the same level of the characters, i.e. part of the story
a so called narrator-focalizer With external focalization, the superordinate narrator and the focalizing subject are one and the same
fixed focalization if the character that is the focalizer stays the same throughout the story
multiple or variable focalization. if the character changes or there are several characters
To identify the focalizer we must identify the subject of the verbs of perception, thinking, feeling and remembering. If these verbs refer to the narrator, who is observing the fictional world from a superordinate perspective, the focalization is external. If these perceptions, thoughts and feelings are attributed to a character, we are dealing with internal focalization. Proper nouns and personal pronouns in the 3rd person singular are also an indicator for internal focalisation
free indirect discourse (erlebte Rede) It consist of a 3rd person singular in a main clause, with the deixis retained but transposed (here become there, now becomes then…), the temporal system being equal to indirect speech, and often untagged: “…He put his hand to his heart. Funny how it hurt him there. (“Funny how it hurt me here”)”
Another type is indirect discourse This is usually in 3rd person singular, tagged, in a subordinate clause and it summarizes, interprets and grammatically straightens the characters language. It aligns the character´s discourse to the point of view of the narrator. “Mary wondered what she should do.
stream of consciousness It imitates the associative workings of the mind, in incomplete sentences that are alogical and not always coherent. It is untagged and in the 1st person singular
Authorial narrative situation The form is extra/heterodiegetic, 3rd person, the format is overt, omniscient and reliable narrator, the Focalization is external, ´Olympian´ (=god-like), the view is both inside and outside possible, the mode shifts between telling and showing, but the mode of telling is dominant
First Person narration The form is autodiegetic, 1st person, the format is overt; the I- as-narrator usually has superior knowledge, reliability and unreliability possible, the Focalization is external (when focus on I-as-narrator erzählendes Ich), but internal is possible (when focus on I-as-character erlebendes Ich), both inside and outside view possible, the mode changes between telling and showing
Figural narration the Form is heterodiegetic, 3rd person, the format is a covert narrator, focalizer is internal and has limited knowledge, the centre of perspective lies with the intradiegetic focalizer, not with narrating instance – a split between who sees and speaks, the view is an inside view (only regarding reflectors consciousness) and outside view of all characters, and the mode is mostly showing
Clues for Figural narration are: referentless pronouns, slice-of-life stories, focus on the internal…
The term ´psycho-narration´ describes a mode of representing internal processes by a relatively high degree of compression and a high level of narrator participation. In psycho-narration, a narrator uses his/her own language to summarise a characters state of mind.
Free indirect discourse (or ´narrated monologue´) attempts to convey the illusion of offering an immediate insight into the perceptions and internal processes of a character. Signals of subjectivity can be markers for free indirect discourse. An example would be: “Was it true that the sense could cure it? Innocent blood had been spilt. What could atone for that? Ah! For there was no atonement.”
Narrative Situations The structure of narrative transmission is described as the narrative situation of a text. Franz K. Stanzl´s three typical narrative situations have become quite influential. His typology is based on three elements: mode (narrator / reflector), person (first / third person) and perspective (internal / external perspective)
Brevity Brevity in both quantity (reduced length) and quality (reduced content). Brevity in Quantity consist of: The space-saving code of poetry is compensated by ´vertical density´ (overstructuring on linguistic levels), creating an intense reading experience (because it can be read in one sitting). This also causes a cognitive presence of all textual details (poem as a spatial object, the ´form´ of it)
Brevity in Quality We get little information about the communicative constituents (Who is the speaker, who is the addressee?), there are few or even no events, the fictional worlds created often feature semantic gaps (Leerstellen), it works in cognitive frames (a prototypical element triggers context), which leads to the fact that the reader has to supply missing information (meaning a more ´activated´ reader)
Overstructuring There is an overstructured typography and overstructured sound, meaning both of those being very artificial. This overstructuring creates a certain form of order, mostly with ´sameness´ - repeated elements establish a network of relations, structure, order – and therefore meaning! Each poem creates an unique code, which requires a certain way of reading – not only just reading, but a visual way (looking at typography, form…) and auditive reading (reading it out lout to identify phonological structures, rhymes…)
Overstructuring on the level of typology means also the focus on the verse – the first and last word is fixed, which creates an additional possibility to establish correspondence, and slows down the reader – it draws attention to the discourse (-> self-referentiality).
The sound is also overstructured on the suprasegmental level (stress, metre, rhythm), on the phonetic level (alliterations, assonances…). The sounds themselves do not mean anything, the effect will be determined by innertextual context.
Deviation This refers to a tendency to break rules, not only social rules but also rules made about poetry. This causes the activation of the reader, and additional self- referentiality. An example would be a metaphor (Word that means something else as it usually does, breaks rule [words ´have´ to mean a certain thing] and activates reader [has to think what the word stands for])
Subjectivity Poems often focus on the subjective perspective of the speaker (who is NOT the author!) – Another word would be persona, the term lyrical I is not in use in Anglophone studies. We can differentiate between overt and covert speaker. The impressions of subjectivity are created by the use of 1st person singular, emotional markers…
Selfreferentiality The self-referentiality is a direct consequence of the overstructuring and artificiality of the language – self-referentiality means that the language in poetry primarily refers to itself, and in second insight to the world outside/something else
Fragile aesthetic illusion This illusion corresponds to the aesthetic convention, ´the willing suspension of disbelief´ - the illusion of a fictional world via poems is very sketchy, but the illusion of a speaker is generally very strong
Genre: The term ´genre´ is derived from the biological term ´genus´ and refers to a group of literary works that share significant characteristics in terms of content, form and/or function. They serve as a classificatory system for literary works and as important signposts for authors and recipients.
Definitions of poetry: relative brevity a tendency towards a very selective and limited treatment of a chosen theme, subjective perspective of the speaker (or ´lyric persona´) the rhyme scheme regular metre stanzas the lack of plot repetitions and other deviations from everyday language. As one of the most important criterions: an enhanced level of artistry, sometimes said to be a characteristic of ALL poetry in general.
brevity produces reduction and compression of the subject-matter presented in the poem. Spatial and temporal relations are also typically compressed in lyric
Subjectivity is expressed via the attitude and perspective of the lyric persona, with an individual mode of linguistic expression and the theme of the poem, which is often (not always!) centred around on individual experiences. Another expression of subjectivity is the use of the pronoun ´I´
The referential function of language points towards extratextual context or reality, and is reduced towards a minimum (or even suspended) in poetry
The structural complexity of poems make up most of the central features of poetry, like: -Rhyme and sound patterns: level of sound, metre and rhythm -Individual Words (and their formation): Especially repetition, morphological level -Sentence level: for example parallel arrangements… syntactic level -figurative language: on the level of meaning (semantic level)
The structural complexity is also found on the external form, in metric (Metre: Scheme of stressed and unstressed syllables, basic structure of a poem) and stanzaic structure for example
The rhyme scheme establishes connections between lines and between individual words.
The most important generic features of poetry are: a tendency towards relative brevity; compression, condensation and reduction of presented subject-matter; increased subjectivity; musicality and proximity to songs; structural and phonological complexity; morphological and syntactical complexity; deviation from everyday language and increased artificiality; increased aesthetic self-referentiality
Sonnets story level extreme idealisations of women (Laura cult), praising her perfection (not only perfect beauty, but also perfect purity), the resulting frustration, melancholy and isolation of the lyrical persona, resulting in self-scrutiny [=Selbstuntersuchung] and self-definition through renunciation [=Verzicht]
Sonnets discuorse level A very strict form which necessitates a strict logical structure (a rational way of dealing with passion) abba abba cde cde (octet or sestet) very artistic, stylised and formulaic manner (no detailed realism)
The Shakespearean (or ´English´) sonnet has abab cdcd efef gg (3 quartets, 1 couplet) structure (iambic pentameter)
The Shakespearean (or ´English´) sonnet consists of an argumentative structure: thesis – antithesis – synthesis | expectation vs. solution, tension vs. solution, claim vs. proof, claim vs. contradiction. The couplet often features a surprising or ironic twist
The external form of poetry Firstly, consider the lines per stanza, and the number of stanzas (if there are any). A stanza is a unit of lines, visually marked through typographical spaces.
Types of metre: -Actual metre -Syllabic metre -Free Verse -Accentual-syllabic metre
Actual metre: Same number of stresses, different number of syllables.
Syllabic metre: Same number of syllables, varied numbers of stresses
Free Verse: Irregular patterns of stresses and syllables
Accentual-syllabic metre: Same number of stressed and non-stressed syllables in a fixed order
The suprasegmental level: The suprasegmental level is the level ´below´ those language levels which can be divided into separate segments (e.g. phonemes). Stress means a loudness through stronger air pressure, and happens at a full vowel (not at a schwa).
How to describe the metre: - Scan [=leier] the text -underline the ikts (stressed positions) -establish the type of foot (foot is a metrical unit) -establish number of feet (= number of syllables) -if you encounter irregularities, apply the maximisation principle!
The prose rhythm: The natural prose sequence of stressed and unstressed syllables is irregular! Stressed syllables are autosemantics [=Inhaltswörter], unstressed syllables are form and function words
The verse rhythm is the interplay between metre and prose rhythm, between abstract metrical patterns and natural prose. This interplay is a tension between abstract, regular metrical norm and concrete realisations.
The prose rhythm can deviate from the metre in various ways: Additional accent Inversion Unrealised ikt Extra Syllable Elision
Rhyme: Rhyme is the sameness of sounds after the last stressed vowel, with the preceding consonant usually differing. It marks the verse unit, creates correspondence (between rhyming words and verses) and contrasts (with all other non-rhyming verses), and can be a part of interplay
Types of Rhymes: Couplets Crossed rhyme Chain rhyme Embracing rhyme Intermitted rhyme Sporadic/occasional rhyme Thorn line
Couplets aa bb cc ´Whilom there was dwelling in my country An archdeacon, a man of high degree, that boldly did execution in punishing of fornication
Crossed rhyme abab cdcd ´The owl and the pussy-cat went to sea in a beautiful pea-green boat. They took some honey and plenty of money Wrapped up in a 5-pound note.
Chain rhyme aba cdc…
Embracing rhyme abba cddc/aba cdc ´Do not go gentle into that good night, Old age shall burn and rave at close of day; Rage, rage, against the dying of the light
Intermitted rhyme xaxa ´Because I could not stop for death He kindly stopped for me; The carriage held but just ourselves And immortality
Sporadic/occasional rhyme A rhyme in a mostly unrhymed poem
Thorn line A line left without rhyme in a generally rhymed poem
Rhyme types depending on stress: Full Rhyme Rich/pure/perfect rhyme Identical rhyme Half/slant/pararhymes Consonance Assonance End-rhyme Internal rhyme Leonine rhyme
Full Rhyme ast consonants preceding the last stressed vowels differ; night/delight, power/flower
Rich/pure/perfect rhyme the last consonant (cluster) are the same and sound the same in both words. lap/clap, stick/ecclesiastic
Identical rhyme words are the same or homonyms
Half/slant/pararhymes only the vowels or the consonants are identical
Consonance (same consonants): boot/boat
Assonance (same vowels): dice/slice
Eye-rhyme (words look similar but don´t rhyme): river/rider
End-rhyme at the end of a line
Internal rhyme within lines
Leonine rhyme a word in the middle of the line – usually before a caesura (=pause???) – rhymes with last word. ´I bring fresh showers for the thirsty flowers
masculine rhyme last syllable is stressed
feminine rhyme UNSTRESSED
the smallest unit of verse THE FOOT
Types of feet: iambic foot (unstressed – stressed), trochee (stressed – unstressed), dactyl (unstressed – stressed – stressed), anapaest (stressed – stressed – unstressed), spondee (unstressed – unstressed) and amphibrach (stressed – unstressed – stressed)
iambic foot unstressed – stressed
trochee stressed – unstressed
dactyl unstressed – stressed – stressed
anapaest stressed – stressed – unstressed
spondee unstressed – unstressed
amphibrach stressed – unstressed – stressed
A break in the metre which divides up a line of verse into parts is known as a caesura
The rhythm of a poem is not only defined by its metre, but also by the length of the syllables, the repetition of phonological and syntactic elements and the meaning of the individual words
Caesuras are often more than a simple break in the metric structure, they often serve to emphasize thematic opposition or breaks in thought sequence by the means of tension that they introduce into the line structure
Rhyme generally means a consonance of words between the last stressed vowel, and in the most narrow sense, a rhyme occurring at the end of the lines of the verse (end-rhyme), with a consonance between all phonemes following the last stressed syllable (full/perfect/true/exact rhyme), and all rhyming syllables occurring within the same word
Historical rhyme: rhyme words that used to rhyme in historical pronunciation ´We died and rise the same and prove, Mysterious by this love
Mosaic rhyme: division of one of the rhyme words into two or more words ´Oh, do not ask What is it? Let us go and make our visit!
Broken/split rhyme: Rhyme created by dividing a word at the line break ´On an age old anvil wince and sing, Then lull, then leave off. Fury had shrieked No ling- erring!´
Rhyming Couplets aa bb cc
Alternate rhyme abab cdcd
Embracing/Envelope rhyme abba cddc
Chain/Interlocking rhyme aba bcb cdc
Tail rhyme aab ccb
The schematic representation of the sequence of end-rhymes within a stanza or a poem is described as its rhyme scheme
Rhyme and other sound patterns can therefore have three functions a structuring and organisational function, the function of enhancing the content of the poem by imitating aspects of external reality and internal processes, which is called ´mimetic/evocative´ function, as well as general aesthetic functions.
The Metaphor: The metaphor is a figure of speech
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