Critical Listening

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Flashcards on Critical Listening, created by emailnhuanpham on 10/16/2013.

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What is the difference between Critical Listening and Analytical Listening? Critical Listening - Objective Listening to physical details of music - Pitch - Dynamic Range - Timbre - Rhythmic properties Analytical Listening - Subjective -Concerned with meaning, emotion, feeling, subtext associated with music. Varies from listener to listener
What is a best listening environment? (4) 1. Suitable area 2. Low Light 3. Monitor Setup 4. Mental Preparedness
What is the best monitoring setup? 1. Have speakers 1m from your head 2. Ear level height 3. Equilateral triangle between head and speakers (30degrees - L/R from center 4. If you are headphones, buy the best headphones possible
How can you mentally prepare before critically listening to Meg? (5) 1. Well rested 2. Eat before 3. Ensure no pressing appointments 4. Know what you're listening for 5. Review listening process for effectiveness
What is the ILM (Intergrative Listening Model) 4 Stages 1. Prepare to listen 2. Apply listening process 3. Assess listening performance 4. Setup new goals to listen Repeat
Explain the human hearing mechanism and the process of auditory transduction -Sound waves travel through auditory canal -Hits the tempanic membrane -Malleus, Incus, Stapes hit the oval window -Stimulates the cochlea -Pressure is relieved through round window -Organ of corti is stimulated which sends neurons to the brain
The Semi-Circular Canal is also known as? Balance Organ
Sound waves can behave in two ways - what are they Periodic and Transient
Explain periodic sound waves Starts smoothly and repeat over time
Explain transient sound waves Cycles start suddenly and decay quickly
Wavelength is the? Distance between peaks
Frequency Direct relationship to pitch L=L=L H=H=S
Amplitude Strength of the wave Direct relation to LOUDNESS SPL measured in DB
Phase Start of given cycle
Simple Wave Pure Tone
Complex Wave Multiple sine waves Real world musical sounds
Noise All frequencies heard simulataneously
What are the types of hearing loss and how are they caused? Conductive Hearing Loss - Caused by a mechanical problem in the ear canal or middle that blocks the conduction of sound Sensorineural Hearing oss - Damage to inner ear, auditory nerve, or auditory nerve pathways
What is the most common form of hearing loss? Sensorineural hearing loss - caused by prolonged exposure to sound or loud noise.
How can you prevent hearing loss? (4 steps) 1. Restrict 2/3rds of volume 2. Rest 5 mins every 30 mins. 3. Listen when rested, recharged and focused 4. If tired, mouth stretching exercises will help loosen muscles and tendons in middle ear
What is meant by pitch? (3) -Describes a particular frequency being maintained -Pitch represents the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound -Can be measured in Hertz (Hz) E.G A=440
Why A440Hz? (3) 1. Pitch shared by most instruments 2. Common note in music compositions 3. It's a nice round figure
What is the formula for finding a perfect 5 from A Take A440 half it and then add it to A440. E.G 440/2 = 220 440 + 220 = 660 The Hz value of E A P5 above A is E 660Hz
How can we define Rhythm? (3) 1.Collection of sound events through time 2. Often using transient waveforms 3. A pattern of musical events which lend itself to repetition
What is destructive interference? Cancelling each other out
How do you identify odd time signature? (3) 1. Listen for underlying beat 2. Recognize melodies that repeat 3. Listen to accents in music
What is the BPM of the following tempos Largo Larghetto Adagio Andante Moderato Allegro Presto Prestissimo Largo=40-60 Larghetto=60-66 Adagio=66-76 Andante=76-108 Moderato=108-220 Allegro=120-168 Presto=168-200 Prestissimo=200-208
What is dynamics Loud and soft
What is amplitude? The lateral distance of wavelength
What is sound intensity The amplitude of the sound emitted by the source
What is sound pressure level The amplitude of the listeners position - (receiving the sound)
What is loudness Amplitude as perceived by the listener- it's subjective
How many dB does it take to double the sound? 10
What is the optical frequency for human hearing 5000Hz (pipe Organ)
What is the Workplace Standard for dB in Australia? 85dB for 8 hours (90dB USA)
What is Timbre? Tone colour
What is a spectral envelope? A graph which displays the distribution of frequencies over time
What is the amplitude envelope? A graph- attack sustain decay
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