Environmental Science

Sophee-Ann G
Flashcards by Sophee-Ann G, updated more than 1 year ago
Sophee-Ann G
Created by Sophee-Ann G almost 6 years ago
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Exams - Semester One, Science

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Question Answer
Carbon Cycle
Water Cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
Natural Influence on the Climate. Weather - State of atmosphere determines of precipitation, temperature, cloud cover, wind. Climate - Long term averages of weather. Usually generalised for a specific region. Average are normally on an annual cycle. The Sun is the ultimate source of energy for most living things, and it keeps the planet warm enough to support life. Energy from the Sun is a major influence on climate. However, other factors also influence the world's climate.
Southern Oscillation The cyclic variation of atmospheric pressure at sea level between the eastern and western regions of the southern Pacific Ocean as a result of the periodic cooling and warming of surface water known as La Niña and El Niño. It has an average period of 2.33 years.
El Nino . Similar weather from one side to the other side of Pacific Ocean. . Weakened trade wind. . Australia receive little moisture (Humidity) reducing perception and causing draught.
La Niña he central and eastern Pacific Ocean becomes much cooler than normal. The trade winds blow more strongly than usual and Australia experiences more cloud and wetter-than-normal conditions, especially in the north. La Niña events usually last for more than one year.
Global Warming Warming means an increase in average world temperature. During interglacials, ice caps melt and this causes the sea level to rise and coastal lands to flood. Evidence for the rise and fall of sea level can be seen in the patterns of sediments and fossils in coastal rocks. Reasons for the past warming and cooling of Earth are not understood completely. Therefore, it is challenging to fully assess the contribution that human actions are making to the present period of global warming
Indian Ocean Dipole Weather in the southern parts of Australia is influenced by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). The IOD is a cycle of change in the water temperature between the eastern and western areas of the Indian Ocean, near the equator. The change is not a regular one. It does not happen every year or at the same time of year. The cool sea temperatures in the Indian Ocean near Australia that leads to poor rainfall in central and southern Australia. In this case, the IOD is positive, meaning temperatures are higher in the western Indian Ocean and lower in the east near Australia.
Green House Gas The Greenhouse effects is a natural environmental process that asists in protecting the earth from freezing. Greenhouse Effect Gases -- . Carbon Dioxide . Methane . Nitrous Oxide Natural VS Enhance Enhanced To much of the greenhouse gases s causes Global Warming.
Evidence of Climate Change Evidence for climate change Evidence for past changes in climate has come from a variety of sources, which are described below. Glaciers - Glaciers are indicators of climate change, advancing when the climate cools and retreating when the climate warms. Ice cores On some glaciers and ice sheets, sufficient snow falls each year to form recognisable annual layers. Scientists take cores, from ice sheets in places such as Antarctica. Pollen analysis Pollen decays very slowly and often becomes fossilised. Fossil pollen indicates the species growing in the area when the sediments that created the fossils were laid down. Changes in the types of pollen found indicate changes in vegetation and climate. Sea level change The worldwide distribution of sedimentary rocks and the types of fossils found in them are indicators of changes in sea level in the past. For example, sedimentary rocks in central Australia contain fossils of sea creatures.
Human influences on Climate Naturally occurring factors can cause climates to change. World climates changed long before humans were around. However, scientific evidence suggests that human activities such as agriculture, urbanisation and industrialisation have influenced climate. Building cities and clearing land for agriculture change climate on a local scale. Increased use of fossil fuels, industrialisation and deforestation have had a more widespread effect on the world's climate.
Water Cycle the cycle of processes by which water circulates between the earth's oceans, atmosphere, and land, involving precipitation as rain and snow, drainage in streams and rivers, and return to the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration.
Nitrogen Cycle The series of processes by which nitrogen and its compounds are interconverted in the environment and in living organisms, including nitrogen fixation and decomposition.
Carbon Cycle The series of processes by which carbon compounds are interconverted in the environment, involving the incorporation of carbon dioxide into living tissue by photosynthesis and its return to the atmosphere through respiration, the decay of dead organisms, and the burning of fossil fuels.
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