Hitler's Foreign Policy and the Origins of the Second World War

Alex Russell
Flashcards by Alex Russell, updated more than 1 year ago
Alex Russell
Created by Alex Russell over 5 years ago


Flashcards on Hitler's Foreign Policy and the Origins of the Second World War, created by Alex Russell on 05/28/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
When did Hitler become chancellor ? 1933
What were some of Hitler's main aims ? -Reverse the Treaty of Versailles -Unite all German-speaking people -Lebensraum -Anschluss -Destroy communism
When did Neville Chamberlain become Prime Minister ? May 1927
What was the policy of appeasement ? When Chamberlain decided to directly negotiate with Hitler in an attempt to solve disputes. Some people thought that Chamberlain was cowering to Hitler but he was able to say no, he did however think many of the things Hitler asked for were reasonable and so though by agreeing to reasonable claims Hitler would be satisfied
Give examples of statistics in how Hitler begun to re-arm ? 1932 1939 Warships: 30 95 Aircraft: 36 8,250 Soldiers: 100,000 950,000 % of spending on armaments 1% --> 23%
When did Hitler sign a pact with Poland ? Non-aggressive pact 1934 where they promised not to attack each other for 10 years
When was conscription re-introduced into Germany ? 1935 and Hitler justified it by pointing out that other countries where increasing their arms and that Germany needs to be strong enough to defend itself
When did Britain and Germany sign a naval agreement ? 1935 which allowed Germany to build a fleet as long as it was no larger that 35% of the size of the British fleet
When was the disarmament conference and what happened ? 1932 where representatives of 60 nations met to discuss ways that their countries may disarm to reduce that chance of war
What was the outcome of the Disarmament conference ? Failed as there were too many differences between France and Germany as Germany said that all countries should only have as many arms as them and France was concerned about German power so refused to co-operate So Hitler withdrew from the conference
In 1933 how big did Hitler announce the peacetime army would be ? 300,000 men
What was the peacetime army increased to in 1936 ? 550,000 men
What % of German spending was on military compare to Britain ? GM- 18% GB- less than 10%
What is the Stresa Front and what happened ? As Germany began to rearm it alarmed many European countries so in a move to restrict the rearmament France, Italy and Britain met at Stresa to formally protest about Hitler's plans
What was the out come of the Stresa front ? -Anglo German treaty 1935 which allowed Germany to build a fleet a third the size of Britain's -Anglo French reaction to the Italian invasion of Abyssinia in Oct 1935 destroyed co-operation between the 3 countries
What happened in 1934 in Austria ? Austrian Nazi Party activists murdered Engelbert Dolfuss the chancellor of Austria and then tried to take over but were prevented by Dolfuss's successor Kurt Von Schuschnigg and the opposition of Mussolini
What did Mussolini do to prevent Germany invading Austria ? Sent 100,00 troops to the Austrian frontier to forestall the German takeover and Hitler was forced to dent any involvement in the Nazi uprising or murder of Dolfuss
Why did Hitler want to do with Austria ? To unite all German speaking people known as the Anschluss
What were 6 steps to the Anschluss ? 1-Schuschnigg appointed leading Nazis in positions of government to try and prevent further trouble 2-1938 Austrian police discover Nazis planing to overthrow the government 3-Schuschnigg meets with Hitler Feb 1938 to persuade him not to support the take over 4-To please |Hitler Schuschnigg appoints Seyss Inquart as minister of interior 5-Schuschnigg announced a plebiscite which worried Hitler so he demanded Schuschnigg resign and Seyss Inquart take over otherwise Germany would invade 6-11th March Schuschnigg stood down and the next morning German troops marched into Austria
How many prisoners did the Germans make when entering Austria ? 80,000+
On what date did Hitler enter Austria triumphant ? 12th March 1938
When was the plebiscite held and what was the outcome ? 14th March 1938 and 99.75% voted in favour
The Saar was taken from Germany by the Treaty of Versailles why did Germany want it back and how did they manage to do it ? It was a rich coal mining area and a plebiscite was held in 1935 over 90% voted for to return to Germany
The Rhineland was made a de-militarised zone so how did Hitler pose to overturn this ? 7th March 1936 Hitler ordered 32,000 troops to march into the Rhineland even though he feared that Britain and France would try and stop him, many believe that this was the last time Britain and France could confront Hitler without going to war as his armies were too weak in 1936, but Britain and France were more worried bout Abyssinia to deal with him
Results of the occupation of the Rhineland -The threat posed by Hitler made it more difficult for Britain and France to deal efficiently with the Abyssinian crisis as they worried that if the took firm action against Mussolini he would grow closer to Hitler -It encouraged Hitler to continue to challenge the terms of the treaty as he was convinced that Britain and France would do nothing -Britain and France had missed an ideal opportunity to stop Hitler which could have prevented further aggression
When was the Rome-Berlin axis signed and who was it between ? October 1936 Germany-Italy
What was the Anti-comintern Pact and who signed it ? Signed in November 1936 between Japan and Germany and refers to the 'communist International' an organisation set up in Russia 1919 to support the spread of communism. 1937 Mussolini joined the pact the main aim was to limit communist influence around the world and provided scope for much closer relations and co-operation between Germany, Italy and Japan and encouraged Japanese expansion into China
Why did Hitler want Czechoslovakia ? To achieve Lebensraum as Czechoslovakia contained 3 million German speaking people .Czechoslovakia geographically was a threat to Germany and it contained a large arms factory and large deposits of coal
How did Hitler begin his move against Czechoslovakia ? From April 1938 Hitler ordered Henlein to stir up trouble then published it in German newspapers and because of the 'Crisis' Hitler said that he would support the Sudeten Germans with military force if a solution could not be found The situation worsened in the summer if 1938 so Chamberlain intervened and felt that he could persuade Hitler to accept a compromise
What 3 meeting were held to try and come to a solution for the Sudetenland Crisis ? 1-Berchtesgaden: 15th September 1938 where Hitler demanded the Sudetenland and threatened war if it was not given to him so Chamberlain offered to discuss that transfer of the places where the majority of German speaking people lived 2-Godesberg: 22nd September 1938 Hitler increased his demands and said that he should also be given Poland and Hungary and demanded that they be given to him by 1st October or war these demands were rejected 3-Munich: 29th September 1938 It was finally greed that Sudeten was to be occupied by German troops by 10th October
The day after the Munich conference what id Chamberlain meet with Hitler to do ? Sign the Anglo-German Decoration where the two countries promised never to go to war with one another again and would settle all disputes by talking
Give 3 examples the Munich Agreement weakened the state of Czechoslovakia -Lost it's strong defence system -Lost key industrial areas -Lost territory in Poland in October 1938 and Hungary in November 1938 -Stirred other nationalities in Czechoslovakia to return to their own nation states
What happened in 1939 that meant Hacha had to invite Germans into Czechoslovakia ? many Slovaks demanded more rights and the new president Hacha had to appeal to Hitler for help so on the 15th March 1939 Nazis marched into Czechoslovakian capital and took control so was now no longer an independent state
Why was the invasion of Czechoslovakia not opposed by Britain or France ? As Hitler had been invited in by Czechoslovakia's government this marked the end of appeasement and changed Chamberlains attitude towards Hitler
When did the British government reintroduce conscription ? After to occupation of czechoslovakia
After Czechoslovakia what else did Hitler seize and what did Britain think Hitler's next target was ? Prague an the province of Memel and his next target Poland
When did Britain and France promise to help Poland if it was attacked by Germany ? April 1939-but they were unable to fulfil this promise and only the USSR could defend Poland if they were attacked
When was t5he Nazi-Soviet Pact signed ? 23rd August 1939 where they agreed not to attack each other and agreed to attack Poland and divide it between them
Why was the Nazi-Soviet pact signed ? -Joseph Stalin grew impatient with Britain who were hesitating to sign an agreement with him -Stalin suspected that Britain and France were trying to direct Hitler's attention way from the west -By making a pact with Hitler Stalin gained half of Poland and time to rearm
Why did Hitler think that Britain and France would not defend Poland ? As they failed to defend Czechoslovakia
When was Poland attacked ? 1st September 1939
When did Britain declare war on Germany ? 3rd September 1939
When did the USSR invade Poland ? 17th September 1939
What took place in March 1939 ? 20th March Hitler demanded the city of Memel which was a free city under the Treaty of Versailles 2 days later fearing an invasion Lithuania handed Memel over to Hitler the League of Nations did nothing and Britain and France were not prepared to go to war o protect the Treaty
How did Chamberlain react to the Nazi-Soviet Pact ? By forming the Anglo-Polish Mutual Assistance Pact on 25th August
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