ITIL v3 Foundation

Flashcards by nelsen1142, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by nelsen1142 about 6 years ago


Flashcards on ITIL v3 Foundation, created by nelsen1142 on 06/05/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
• Higher IT service quality is always required while fewer resources are available True
o Users are not interested in the processes / technology, rather they just need to utilize the service to achieve? business goals
IT services are increasingly provided as ______________ to the external customers business services
The need to balance IT services request and quality with available resources to deliver the maximum value to the business = __________ IT service management
A service is a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs and risks
What are two types of customers ? internal (within the same organization) external (outside the organization)
outcome is the result of carrying out an activity, including intended and actual results True
IT Service A service provided by an IT service provider. An IT service is made up of a combination of information technology, people and processes
customer-facing IT service directly supports the business processes of one or more customers and its service level targets should be defined in a service level agreement
supporting services are not directly used by the business but are required by the service provider to deliver customer-facing services.
IT Services consist of taking care the design, implementation and maintenance of all the components that are required to fulfill a business objective for the users
Types of services 1) Core Services: required directly by customers to deliver an intended outcome 2) Enabling Services: needed to ensure core services can be delivered successfully, not visible to customers 3) Enhancing Services: created to add features / values to the customers, not essential
Types of IT services o Supporting Services o Internal Customer-facing Services o External Customer-facing Services
service package is a collection of two or more [generic] services that have been combined to offer a solution to a specific type of customer need or to underpin specific business outcomes
Stakeholders are individuals or groups that have an interest in an organization, service, or project and are potentially interested or engaged in the activities, resources, targets, or deliverables from service management
Service providers are organizations supplying services to one or more internal or external customers.
Service Management is a set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services
Capabilities functions and processes for managing services over a lifecycle
The act of transforming resources into valuable services is at the core of ? service management
IT Service Management The implementation and management of quality IT services that meet the needs of the business
IT service management is performed by IT service providers (to internal or external customers) through an appropriate mix of people, process and information technology.
Types of IT Service Providers o Type I: Internal Service Provider – service providers located within the business unit o Type II: Shared Services Unit – supports several business units, e.g. centralized IT department o Type III: External Service Provider
suppliers only provide an element of the service which is not visible to the customer
A process is ? a set of activities designed to turn input(s) into output(s) in order to accomplish a specific objective (need to be measurable)
The process is considered_______if all the objectives of the output are met effective
Each process is owned by a _______responsible for the process and improvement, ensuring the process meets the defined objectives process owner
• Benefits of Process Automation with IT Service o Capacity Management – Improve quality o Optimization – handle complex tasks better o Measurement – for improvement as human factor is ruled out
Function A team or group of people and the tools they use (resources) to carry out one or more processes or activities
Role A set of responsibilities, activities and authorities granted to a person or team
Defined roles in ITIL Group Team Department Division
The ITIL Service Lifecycle 1. Service Strategy (SS) 2. Service Design (SD) 3. Service Transition (ST) 4. Service Operation (SO) 5. Continual Service Improvement (CSI)
Service Portfolio Management (SPM) ensure the appropriate mix of services to meet customer requirements,
Service Portfolio the complete set of services managed by a service provider (representing all the commitments and investments)
three sections of the Service Portfolio  pipeline section – pre-operational services, conceptual services  service catalogue section – customer-facing, live operational services  retired section – retired services
Purpose of Financial Management for IT Services to secure enough funding for all the IT services (design, develop and deliver) and to control IT expenditures by balancing quality and cost, thus avoiding commitment to services that are not financially viable
Business Relationship Management Process (BRM) to establish relationship between the service provider and customers and to ensure customers satisfaction by responding to changing requirements and managing customer expectation
Objectives of BRM o understand customer’s needs and prioritize services accordingly to meet user requirements o maintain good communication o handle conflicts and complaints effectively
A business case is ... the justification for a significant item of expenditure. The business case includes information about costs, benefits, options, issues, risks and possible problems.
Business cases are built in Business Relationship Management process and evaluated in Service Portfolio Management process True
Service Portfolio Management provides information for the whole service lifecycle
Financial Management manages costs and budgets for the whole service lifecycle
• Business Relationship Management provides high-level, strategic interface with customers
The Service Design lifecycle stage is an important area as the design is often accountable for the success or failure of the services True
• Service Design is involved in both planning new services and changing existing services to ensure service strategy are fulfilled.
A service needs to provide ____________ (level of service, including security, service continuity, capacity, etc.) in order to deliver value utility and warranty
The purpose of Service Design is to deliver a new service that can deliver the strategic outcome required by the design. both the services and the service management processes need to be included
A Key Output of Service Design is? Service Design Package
A service design package consists of one or more documents that describe all aspects of the service throughout its lifecycle, for use in transition and operation of the service.
Services are composed of the following elements utility, warranty, resources and capabilities
Key Elements of Service Design (SD) • People • Processes • Products • Partners
A service catalogue is ? a database or structured document with information about all live IT services, including those available for deployment.
The service catalogue is part of the service portfolio
Purpose of Service Catalog Management is to provide and maintain a single source of consistent information on all operational / ready-to-deploy services
Poor availability is the primary cause for customer dissatisfaction True
Availability is the ability of an IT service or other configuration item to perform its agreed function when required.
Availability Formula Availability % = Agreed service time - dwn time / AST * 100
availability management is primarily concerned about customer satisfaction
Reliability is a measure of ? how long a service, component, or CI can perform its agreed function without interruption- measured by mean time between failures / incidents
Maintainability how quickly the fault can be overcome, measured by mean time to restore service (MTRS)NOT mean time to repair (MTTR)
Maintainability formula Total downtime in hours ______________________ Number of service breaks
Serviceability is the ability of a third-party supplier to meet the terms of its contract - the time taken by the contractor to restore the service
two key elements of the Concepts of availability Reactive activities -These involve the monitoring, measuring, analysis and management of all events, incidents and problems involving unavailability Proactive activities- These involve the proactive planning, design and improvement of availability.
Information security provides the strategic direction for security activities and ensures objectives are achieved.
Information Security Management System (ISMS) standards, management procedures and guidelines supporting the information security policies
Supplier Management is the process responsible for obtaining value for money from suppliers, ensuring that all contracts and agreements with suppliers support the needs of the business and that all suppliers meet their contractual commitments
Supplier performance is directly related to service performance, therefore in the service design phrase True
Capacity Management is responsible for ensuring that the capacity of IT services and the IT infrastructure is able to meet agreed current and future capacity and performance needs in a cost-effective and timely manner.
Business Capacity Management to calculate and forecast needs according to the business plan
Service Capacity Management – to understand how the use of individual live services vary over time and deliver agreed capacity for individual services
Component Capacity Management to understand the utilization and capabilities of all components for end-to-end service, to clear bottleneck
Capacity Plan captures the current and future requirements and proposes action steps for the 12 to 18 months ahead and to be reviewed at least annually
IT service continuity management (ITSCM) is responsible for the continuity of the IT services required by the business in times of disasters or extreme events to recover the IT services.
Service Design not only involves providing the utility but also the warranty True
RACI responsible, accountable, consulted, informed
each service has a single__________ that is _______________for delivering the service across all process areas in an effective and efficient manner service owner accountable
Process Owner • accountable for a single process (for all affecting services) • process owner is accountable for the end-to-end process (including all activities)
Process Manager • responsible for managing the actual implementation of the process
Process Practitioner • responsible for carrying out the process activity (can also be the process manager) under the guidance of the process manager
The RACI Model • identify the responsibilities and accountabilities for each process task to avoid confusion
RACI o Responsible – people (at least one) who “get the job done” by actually carrying out the task o Accountable – one person (only one) who owns the task and ensures that the quality of the work meeting the requirements o Consulted – people (if any) who are consulted for their opinion / expertise over a process activity o Informed – people (if any)who are updated for the progress of the activity
The RACI matrix • The RACI matrix A B C D Activity 1 AR C I I Activity 2 A R C C Activity 3 R A I C Activity 4 A R C I
The purpose of Service Transition is to ensure that the agreed services are delivered from service design to service operation effectively
Objectives of Service Transition (ST) • Plan and manage changes to services (either introducing new or retiring existing services) and to deploy the new services successfully to support business objectives while ensuring the integrity of all existing services
Processes of Service Transition (ST) • Knowledge Management • Transition Planning and Support • Change Management • Service Asset and Configuration Management (SACM) • Release and Deployment Management
An IT Change is ... the addition, modification or removal of anything that could have an effect on IT services
Change requests are submitted as Requests for Change (RFC)
Change Records are to be used to capture the details of the lifecycle of the changes making references to the configuration items affected (stored in configuration management system), one change record for each individual change
changes can be approved without a back-out or remediation plan (to restore the initial configuration) False (changes should always have a back-out plan to restore the initial configuration)
Remediations are ... actions taken to recover after a failed change or release
Types of Changes o Standard Change o Emergency Change o Normal Change
Standard Change a change to a service or other configuration item, which has a preauthorized approach to its execution, well understood for risks, follow a standard procedure with a predefined trigger -- RFC not required
Emergency Change a change in response to or in order to prevent a business-critical error
Normal Change Typical flow (information stored in SKMS): Create the request for change (RFC) -> trigger the creation of the change record
Change Advisory Board (CAB) determine whether normal changes should be authorized include people from business and technical sides, stakeholders to reflect a balanced view
Transition Planning and Support Process a key process for Service Transition covers the interface between service transition, project management and business engagement
Technical Management Function provides resources for managing the infrastructure
Service Asset and Configuration Management Process (SACM) to ensure the control of IT assets for services by having an accurate record of the assets and their relationships and configuration
Service Asset (SA) any resource or capability that could contribute to the delivery of a service
Configuration Item (CI) a service asset that needs to be managed in order to deliver an IT service
Configuration Record (CR) a set of attributes and relationships about a CI in configuration management databases (CMDBs)
Configuration Model (CM) a model of the services, assets, and infrastructure of each configuration item and their relationships to each other for planning and decision use
One of the most crucial factors is to define the ______________ required to manage configuration items successfully level of detail
Definitive Media Library (DML) consists of a number of software libraries or file storage areas (physical or electronic), which are managed and kept separate from the live, test, or development storage areas
Definitive Media Library (DML) requires ... policies for retention, security, backup, archive
Knowledge Management Process purpose is... to ensure timely retrieval of relevant ideas, perspectives, experience, and information to the correct audience for informed decision making (facilitate reuse of knowledge)
service knowledge management system (SMKS) is a set of tools and databases that is used to manage knowledge, information and data
Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom Structure (DIKW) o data – raw facts,( date and time of incidents) o information – data in context, (average time between incidents) o knowledge – apply experience o wisdom – apply the knowledge with common-sense judgement
Release and Deployment Management Process the build, test, and deployment of the release is successfully delivered with minimal adverse impact to business and other services
Four Phases of Release and Deployment o Release Build and Test o Release and Deployment Planning o Deployment o Review and Close
Release Build and Test the release package is built, tested, and checked into the DML, end with authorization to include the package in DML
Release and Deployment Planning begins with planning a release and ends with change authorization to create the release
Deployment deploy the package from DML and handover the service to operation, early life support might be needed for faster response and knowledge transfer
Review and Close capture lessons learned and address issues
Big-bang option new or changed service is deployed to all user areas in one operation. This will often be used when introducing an Application change
Phased approach the service is deployed to a part of the user base initially, and then this operation is repeated for subsequent parts of the user base via a scheduled roll out plan
Push approach is used where the service component is deployed from the centre and pushed out to the target locations
Pull approach is used for software releases where the software is made available in a central location but users are free to pull the software down to their own location at a time of their choosing or when a user workstation restarts
The purpose of Service Operation (SO) is to deliver the agreed level of end-to-end service to the organization, including the maintenance and management of the services within the operational budget.
Service Management Process includes event, incident, problem and access management and request fulfillment
ITIL names 4 main functions technical management application management operations management service desk
Technical Management Function to manage and develop the IT infrastructure, including the groups/teams that provide infrastructure support
Application Management Function involved in every stage of the service lifecycle of application, from ascertaining the requirements through design and transition and then operation and improvement
IT Operations Management Function carry out day-to-day activities for the delivery of the services to ensure SLA is met – i.e. provide quality service in an efficient and cost effective manner
Technical and Application Management Functions define the activities to be carried out by ______________? Operations Management Function
Operations Management Function is primarily concerned about ___________ and _____________ stability and availability
Facilities Management responsible for physical IT environment (including power supply, UPS, power for disaster recovery sites, air conditioning and work with third parties on data center projects
Service Desk Function •responsible for dealing with a variety of service activities through calls, web interface or reported events • the single point of contact for users of IT services • critical for customer satisfaction as it is most visible
Local Service Desk co-located with users in the office, efficient but expensive
Centralized Service Desk economy of scale, better coordination, knowledge and mind sharing, no direct physical interaction with users
Virtual Service Desk physically separated service desks linked together with a common system to log issues and communications
Requests are not incidents as no service has been impacted True
Incident Management fix faults as quickly as possible, to resume service, incidents will NEVER become problems
Problem Management find the root cause to prevent faults from happening again, to improve overall quality and free up resources needed to deal with repeated incidents
An incident is defined as ... an unplanned interruption to an IT service, a reduction in the quality of an IT service, or a failure of a CI (configuration item) that has not yet impacted an IT service.
Incident Management is responsible for progressing all incidents from reporting to closing – usually the responsibility of the_____________________ service desk
Incident Management is responsible to restore normal service operation (defined in SLA) as soon as possible and minimize impact to business operations
A problem is defined as ... an underlying cause of one or more incidents
A known error is a ..... a problem that has a documented root cause and a workaround.
A workaround is .... a way of reducing or eliminating the impact of an incident or problem for which a full resolution is not yet available
workarounds for known errors are documented in the ___________________ known error records
Problem Management is the process to investigates the _____________ of incidents andimplements a permanent solution / workaround to prevent them from happening again root cause
Incidents will not become problems True, they must be handled separately
Lifecycle of Problem Management 1. Detecting Problems 2. Logging Problems 3. Categorizing Problems 4. Prioritizing Problems 5. Investigating and Diagnosing Problems
Modern systems make use of________________ to monitor configuration items for signals and irregularities event monitoring tools
active monitoring tools actively seek responses to confirm correctness (e.g. ping)
passive monitoring tools detect events generated by CIs
An event can be defined as ... any change of state that has significance for the management of a configuration item (CI) or IT service
Request Fulfillment Process The process for handling service requests for standard services, equipment, or information raised by users through the service desk
A Service Request is ... a formal request from a user for something to be provided
Access Management Process The process of granting authorized users the right to use a service while preventing access to unauthorized users
Three types of Service Measurements  availability  reliability  performance
Critical Success Factor (CSF) is something that must happen if an IT service, process, plan, process, or other activity is to succeed
no more than two to five CSFs per process for manageable results True
Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are used to measure whether the critical success factors are achieved
Purpose of Continual Service Improvement (CSI) to seek ways to improve service effectiveness, process effectiveness and cost effectiveness
Deming Cycle (PDCA Cycle) 1.Plan-plan activity for improvement 2.Do-implement new project 3.Check-review results of the improvement 4.Act-implement modicifications
Seven Steps (DIKW Model) 1. Identify the Strategy for Improvement (Wisdom) 2. Define What You Will Measure (Data) 3. Gather the Data (Data) 4. Process the Data (Information) 5. Analyze the Information and Data (Knowledge) 6. Present and Use the Information (Knowledge) 7. Implement Improvement (Wisdom)
Understand why ITIL is successful The guidance that exists in the framework is based on a pragmatic approach of “adopt and adapt.” The key factors that make it successful are the nonprescriptive, vendor-neutral best practices that form the core service lifecycle publications.
Understand that services may be grouped together core (business-critical services) enabling (services that support the delivery of core services) enhancing (services that add value to the core services)
the three service provider types Type I (internal, within individual business units) Type II (shared, providing services shared across a number of business units) Type III (external, providing services to external customers)
name the characteristics of processes The characteristics of processes are that they are measurable, respond to a trigger, deliver a specific result, and deliver to a customer or stakeholder.
automation is used to help improve__________ and ______________. efficiency /effectiveness
name the core stages of the service lifecycle service strategy service design service transition service operation continual service improvement
Understand the terms utility and warranty Utility ensures that the service is fit for the purpose, and warranty ensures that the service is fit for use. Both of these should be ensured to deliver value to customers.
differentiate between resources and capabilities Resources are items that could be used to assist in the delivery of a service, such as financial capital Capabilities are the assets that represent the organization’s ability to do something to achieve value, such as processes.
Understand the role of governance Governance is a key part of service management throughout the lifecycle. It provides structure and standardization for the management of services and unites the IT service provider approach with that of the organization.
Recall the purpose of the service portfolio management process The process ensures you have an appropriate mix of services being delivered and developed for your customers
Identify the various components of the service portfolio The service portfolio comprises the: service pipeline service catalog retired services
Identify the three main areas of the financial management process budgeting IT accounting charging
It is important to remember also that service design includes the design of both _________and __________ services. new and changed
Understand why good service design is so valuable to the business It is essential that the new or changed design works efficiently and fulfills the business requirements in terms of capacity, continuity, availability, and security, in addition to delivering new functionality
Understand the four P’s people, processes, products, and partners
the five key aspects of service design STAMP Solution Tools Architecture Measurements Processes
service level management SLM ensures that current IT services are delivered to agreed specific and measurable targets
IT service continuity management (ITSCM) is responsible for providing an agreed level of service in the event of a major disruption to normal working conditions. True
Understand the roles and responsibilities of the service owner The service owner is accountable for ensuring the delivery of the service. The service owner will liaise with process owners to ensure that the service is delivered to the highest standard possible
service transition The purpose is to ensure that new, modified, or retired services meet the expectations of the business as agreed on in strategy and design
Be able to identify the value service transition provides to the business This lifecycle stage provides value by delivering changes that are planned, built, tested, evaluated, implemented, and deployed according to expectation and specification, enabling controlled management of new or changed services into operation
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