Sustainable development

Alexander Rehn
Flashcards by Alexander Rehn, updated more than 1 year ago
Alexander Rehn
Created by Alexander Rehn about 6 years ago


Definitions for sustainable management exam

Resource summary

Question Answer
Sustainable development Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
IPAT Widely used simplification of the factors causing environmental degradation. I = P x A x T
anthropocene Informal geologic epoch characterized by significant human impact on global ecosystems.
Geoengineering Using technology to fight climate change artificially
Petrodictatorships Money and power to extremes, reverses democratic trends and finances antidemocratic trends.
1st law of petropolitics “As the price of oil goes up, the pace of freedom goes down; and as the price of oil goes down, the pace of freedom goes up.”
PEtrodictatorships: Impediments to democracy Taxation effect Spending effect Group formation effect Repression effect Anti-modernization effect
Global weirding because warming does not properly define current situation.
Biogenic carbon Carbon from living matter, recorded as 0 in inventories.
Carbon sink Sequestration of carbon from atmosphere. In accounting, over 1 year use of wood is considered as a carbon sink > negative emissions.
EU Emissions Trading System (ETS) response from EU to reach Kyoto targets. Cap and trade model.
CDM Clean Development mechanism: all mechanisms that aim at reducing industry GHG emissions.
NMM New Market MEchanisms: to replace Kyoto framework.
Differences between CDM and concepts for future market mechanisms Project vs programmes/policies/measures Layers of decision making Incentives for mitigation Offsetting approach vs net avoidance of emissions
Natural Capital Refers to the stock of natural resources such as minerals, plants, animals, air.... seen as the means for the production of ecological goods and ecosystem services such as: oxygen production, natural water purification, prevention of erosion, crop pollination, recreational services.
Ecosystem services Provisioning Supporting Regulating Cultural
TEV Use value: direct, indirect, option + Non-use value: Existence, altruistic, Bequest
TEchniques to value ecosystem services Market valuation Revealed preferences Sated preferences
Revealed preference methods Change in productivity Replacement cost Travel cost Hedonic pricing
Stated preference models Contingent valuation Choice modelling
Definition : PES Payments for environmental services: incentives which create incentives for conservation actions.
Types of PES Private payments scheme Cap-Trade scheme Certification scheme Public payment scheme
SSEE Sustainable social environmental enterprise.
Circular economy Keep resources and their value within the economy
pros and cons of sustainable development + acceptance, focal point, orchestration of the sciences - Oxymoron, fuzzy concept, legitimization of current practices
Three pillars approach Economic, environmental and social solutions
Two visions of sustainable development Anthropocentric and ecocentric Weak and Strong Use current system and change completely the system
Montreal protocol Ozone emission agreement
Why are we in trouble according to friedman? Values breakdown: from sustainable to situational, both in market and mother nature.
How did we get financial crisis and environmental crisis according to friedman? Bad accounting rules Underpricing of risk PRivatizing gains and socializing losses
What to do according to friedman? No lecturing others Redefine middle class lifestyle Eliminate concept of waste : stop downcycling, make everything reusable or biodegradable
ENergy solution according to friedman Cheap, abundant, clean electrons the solution: solves 5 issues 1 growing demand for scarcer resources 2 petrodictators getting richer 3 Disruptive climate change 4 Energy proverty 5 Biodiversity loss. He sees energy as geostatrategic, geoeconomic, capitalistic and patriotic
How have IPCC reports changed through times? Climate change more and more likely to be because of human activity
Sources of emissions 35% energy sector 24% Agriculture, forests 21% Industry 14% transport
Projected climate changes Oceans warm MEan sea level will rise Arctic sea ice will shrink Global glacier volume will decrease.
Potential Impacts of climate change Food and water shortages Displacement of people INcreased poverty Coastal flooding
Global warming potential relative measure of how much heat a GHG traps in the atmosphere
emission factors indicates the quantity that can convert "activity data" into emissions.
General principles of carbon accounting Relevance Completeness Consistency Transparency Accuracy
3 scopes of the GHG protocol and iso 14064 Direct Indirect other indirect
2 types of carbon footprint Organizational Product carbon footprint
CDP Carbon disclosure project: based in UK, works with shareholders and corporations to disclose the GHG emissions of large corporations.
Bilan Carbone, + and - Developed by French gov. Popularizes carbon footprinting + includes huge emission factor database, gov recognition - develop in french context, complex and time consuming.
ISO standard for CO2 Standard to ensure that a tonne is a tonne of CO2
UNFCCC UN Framework Convention on CLimate change. They commit to reduction of GHG but no specified target (RIO 1992)
COP The Conference of Parties (COP) is the supreme body of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It currently meets once a year to review the Convention's progress and establish the rules of its implementation
Most important COPs 1997 Kyoto: legally binding targets 2001 Marrakech: conclusion of marrakech accords. main rules of international trading of emissions rights and the practical arrangements for the two other flexible mechanisms. 2009 Copenhagen. Presence of many leaders but no abitious agreement.
Why did carbon markets become instrument of choice (4) ? Diplomatic bargain during allocation process CM are effective to meet climate target bc of cap CM support clean tech and penalize polluting activities CM are economically efficient
Spectrum of policy option for CC From command and control to market based mechanisms: State provision, regulatory controls, technology standards, emissions trading (in the middle) taxation, subsidies, information campaigns, voluntary agreements....
Carbon markets euphoria from 1997-2008
Marginal abatement cost curves cost of changing per tCO2 reduction.
Constitutive elements of a cap and trade emissions trading system Setting of cap Allocation of allowances Monitoring and reporting Implementation of a registry to track allowances Reconciliation and penalties for non-complience
Characteristics of Kyoto markets European bubble, exlusion of forestry, inclusion of all GHG, exclusion of aero+ maritime transport, granfathering, sanctions
% of emissions of countries that signed Kyoto extension 14%
5 hypo to asses the effectiveness of CDM 1 meet a climate target (absolute cap) 2 support clean tech, penalize polluting 3 econom efficient 4 raise awareness on carbon accounting 5 provide a fair solution for all
differences between CDM and future market mechanisms project vs programmes Layers of decision making Differences in incentivizing mitigation action Offsetting approach vs net avoidance of emissions
NMM and FVA, which instruments more than only emissions trading: taxation, subsidies, regulatory controlsm, voluntary....
2 main price mechanisms to reduce emissions capntrade carbon tax
CO2Logic approach 1 Calculate 2 Reduce 3 offset remaining 4 commuinicate
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