Sustainable development stuff to know

Alexander Rehn
Flashcards by Alexander Rehn, updated more than 1 year ago
Alexander Rehn
Created by Alexander Rehn about 6 years ago
22
0

Description

exam preparation for MSD solvay 2015

Resource summary

Question Answer
Problems with current situation according to friedman Values breakdown: from sustainable to situational Acoounting principles: under-priced risk, privatized gains, socialized losses.
5 points that will determine the stability of coming years according to Friedman Petrodictatorships Climate change Energy poverty Energy and natural resources supply and demand Biodiversity loss
PRoblems with the deductive-nomological model 1 correct prediction can be made with false theory 2 Hypotheses that are made without knowledge 3 a lot of science is not deductive but inductive.
Why trust scientists collective authority, experience
Problems with cap and trade 1 Free permits - most permits are free. 2 Offsetting - hard to guarantee that real carbon is removed 3 Distraction - creates a system that distracts from the goal.
Smart grid A smart grid is a modernized electrical grid that uses analog[1] or digital information and communications technology to gather and act on information - such as information about the behaviours of suppliers and consumers - in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.
Natural Capital Accounting Capture info about natural assets that are currently missing from national accounts.
Water supply peak water supply: our demand has reached the limit of peak water supply. Need to rethink supply but especially demand!
Environmental folklore Our perception about environmental impact based on experiences, friends, etc... but no scientific basis.
Biodegradability material property NOT a measure of environmental benefit!
Elon musk secret Ability to look at information and look at it from systemic perspective and identify solutions to problems
Somatic and exosomatic energy regime energy limited or not by human power.
Regional air pollution ruhr, sulfuric triangle, japan and the environmental miracle in the hanshin region.
sulfuric triangle Dresden, prague and krakow sit on seams of brown coal, high in sulfur and ash
River water pollution Ganges - biological pollution The rhine - chemical pollution Watarase river - chemical pollution + acid rain.
Eutrophication Too much of nitrogen and phosphorus that are fertilizers. Create algae that consume oxygen.
How did whaling pickup again? development of the harpoon cannon which fired explosive grenades in whales.
Biological invasion Introduction of new species that disrupt the natural balances of the local ecosystem. Examples: european rabbit
Extinction rates Before 1-3 extinctions per year, now rapid increase due to human activities.
2 clusters related to energy, technology and economy 1) cocketown cluster mid 19th - urban air pollution 2) Motown cluster 1940-1990 - global pollution
Potential new cluster engineering genes and bytes
Link between nationalism and environment nationalism justified heavy polluting in many cases.
2 phases in environmental policies and politics of the 20th century 1) mid 1960s- late 1970s: mvmnts sprang up in rich countries 2) mid 1980 - poorer countries establish environmental protection agencies + international cooperation
anthropocene Informal geologic epoch characterized by significant human impact on global ecosystems.
silver buckshot It's a catchy way of summing up the need for a portfolio or "wedges" approach to solve energy/climate challenges.
CDM Clean development Mechanism: allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol to implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries. Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets.
Cap and Trade Emissions trading or cap and trade ("cap" meaning a legal limit on the quantity of a certain type of chemical an economy can emit each year) is a market-based approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants
Natural capital Natural capital is the stock of natural resources (finite or renewable) and ecosystems that provide direct or indirect benefits to the economy, our society, and the world around us.
Why price natural capital no price, no management
TEV Use value: direct, indirect, option + Non-use value: Existence, altruistic, Bequest
Valuation methods
Sealaska Industrial logging was seen as unsustainable, native corporations started to change this. Sealaska sustainability strategy, 4 pillars: 1 country or land-sea assets 2 ancestral heritage and destiny 3 human development 4 balance of humans in nature and society
Triple bottom line to assess sustainability of biomass energy in alaska: economic: operational savings from 3 $ per gallon upwards environmental: emission factor values used for emissions social: jobs.
Who popularizes the term sustainable development Gro Harlem Bruntland in her book OUR COMMON FUTURE in 1987
7th EAP Environment action program to 2020: LT predictable policy framework to stimulate sustainable development.
Rachel Carson Published a book silent spring in 1962. Effect of pesticides on birds
EREP European Resource Efficiency Platform. aim to secure at least a doubling of resource productivity compared with precrisis trend, equivalent to an increase of 30% by 2030
+ and - with sustainable development + Acceptance, focal point, orchestration of the sciences - Oxymoron, fuzzy concept, legitimization of pollution.
Three pillars approach economic social and environmental
IPAT Impact = Population x Afflunce x technology
living in urban areas over 50%
Curve for CO2 concentration Keeling curve
% of protected land surface 13%
PEtrodictatorships: Impediments to democracy Taxation effect Spending effect Group formation effect Repression effect Anti-modernization effect
Why are we in trouble according to friedman? Values breakdown: from sustainable to situational, both in market and mother nature.
How did we get financial crisis and environmental crisis according to friedman? Bad accounting rules Underpricing of risk PRivatizing gains and socializing losses
What to do according to friedman? No lecturing others Redefine middle class lifestyle Eliminate concept of waste : stop downcycling, make everything reusable or biodegradable
ENergy solution according to friedman Cheap, abundant, clean electrons the solution: solves 5 issues 1 growing demand for scarcer resources 2 petrodictators getting richer 3 Disruptive climate change 4 Energy proverty 5 Biodiversity loss. He sees energy as geostatrategic, geoeconomic, capitalistic and patriotic
How have IPCC reports changed through times? Climate change more and more likely to be because of human activity
Energy poverty 1/5 no electricity
# species extinct 1 every 20 min, 1000x faster than the norm.
Sources of emissions 35% energy sector 24% Agriculture, forests 21% Industry 14% transport
Projected climate changes Oceans warm MEan sea level will rise Arctic sea ice will shrink Global glacier volume will decrease.
Potential Impacts of climate change Food and water shortages Displacement of people INcreased poverty Coastal flooding
Global warming potential elative measure of how much heat a GHG traps in the atmosphere
emission factors indicates the quantity that can convert "activity data" into emissions.
General principles of carbon accounting Relevance Completeness Consistency Transparency Accuracy
CDP Carbon disclosure project: based in UK, works with shareholders and corporations to disclose the GHG emissions of large corporations.
Bilan Carbone, + and - Developed by French gov. Popularizes carbon footprinting + includes huge emission factor database, gov recognition - develop in french context, complex and time consuming.
ISO standard for CO2 Standard to ensure that a tonne is a tonne of CO2. 4 components: organization reporting, project reporting, validation and verification, accreditation of validation and verification bodies.
UNFCCC UN Framework Convention on CLimate change. They commit to reduction of GHG but no specified target (RIO 1992)
COP he Conference of Parties (COP) is the supreme body of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It currently meets once a year to review the Convention's progress and establish the rules of its implementation
Most important COPs 1997 Kyoto: legally binding targets 2001 Marrakech: conclusion of marrakech accords. main rules of international trading of emissions rights and the practical arrangements for the two other flexible mechanisms. 2009 Copenhagen. Presence of many leaders but no abitious agreement.
hy did carbon markets become instrument of choice (4) ? Diplomatic bargain during allocation process CM are effective to meet climate target bc of cap CM support clean tech and penalize polluting activities CM are economically efficient
pectrum of policy option for CC From command and control to market based mechanisms: State provision, regulatory controls, technology standards, emissions trading (in the middle) taxation, subsidies, information campaigns, voluntary agreements....
Carbon markets euphoria from 1997-2008 (after kyoto )
Marginal abatement cost curves cost of changing per tCO2 reduction.
Constitutive elements of a cap and trade emissions trading system Setting of cap Allocation of allowances Monitoring and reporting Implementation of a registry to track allowances Reconciliation and penalties for non-complience
Characteristics of Kyoto markets European bubble, exlusion of forestry, inclusion of all GHG, exclusion of aero+ maritime transport, grandfathering, sanctions
% of emissions of countries that signed Kyoto extension 14%
5 hypo to asses the effectiveness of CDM 1 meet a climate target (absolute cap) 2 support clean tech, penalize polluting 3 econom efficient 4 raise awareness on carbon accounting 5 provide a fair solution for all
Problems with CDM and CAp and trade Initial overallocation, accounting loopholes, carbon leakages
differences between CDM and future market mechanisms project vs programmes Layers of decision making Differences in incentivizing mitigation action Offsetting approach vs net avoidance of emissions
NMM and FVA, which instruments more than only emissions trading: taxation, subsidies, regulatory controlsm, voluntary....
2 main price mechanisms to reduce emissions capntrade carbon tax
CO2Logic approach 1 Calculate 2 Reduce 3 offset remaining 4 commuinicate
PAS2060 Publicly Available Specification (PAS) 2060 gives general requirements to be met by anyone wanting to achieve and demonstrate carbon neutrality.
Natural Capital Refers to the stock of natural resources such as minerals, plants, animals, air.... seen as the means for the production of ecological goods and ecosystem services such as: oxygen production, natural water purification, prevention of erosion, crop pollination, recreational services.
Ecosystem services Provisioning Supporting Regulating Cultural
TEV Use value: direct, indirect, option + Non-use value: Existence, altruistic, Bequest
TEchniques to value ecosystem services Market valuation Revealed preferences Sated preferences
Revealed preference methods Change in productivity Replacement cost Travel cost Hedonic pricing
Stated preference models Contingent valuation Choice modelling
Definition : PES Payments for environmental services: incentives which create incentives for conservation actions.
Types of PES Private payments scheme Cap-Trade scheme Certification scheme Public payment scheme
SSEE Sustainable social environmental enterprise.
Circular economy Keep resources and their value within the economy
Aim of the circular economy Decouple economic growth and development from the consumption of finite resources
2014 Circular economy package Green employment initiative Green action plan for SMEs Communication on Sustainable buildings
EU Circular economy package 1) enabling framework 2) Waste target review 3) Specific waste challenges 4) Resource efficiency target
LCA Life Cycle assessment: holistic approach to understand and prevent environmental impacts and resource utilization
4 steps in LCA 1 Goal and scope definition 2 Inventory analysis 3 Impact assessment 4 Interpretation
Inventory analysis quantification of all basic economic flows associated with each elementary process
2 Impact categories Midpoint: problem oriented categories Endpoint: Damage oriented categories ex: problem: pollution that leads to damage: human health
Impact: focus on 5 categories Global warming potential Ozone depletion potential Acidification potential Smog potential Eutrophication potential
Limitations of LCA definition of system boundaries is at the discretion of the sponsor Choice and complexity of the impact categories Unclear rules of allocations Ex: Data, time, resource requirements, lack of scientific basis, uncertainties over the implementation of results
Industrial ecology is LCA applied to the whole business
Industrial ecology: compelling business strategy, 4 main benefits To reduce costs or increase revenue Improve LT resource scarcity Regulatory pressure for efficiency New business opportunities
3 things to do to achieve industrial ecology By-product reuse Utility or infrastructure sharing Joint provision of services
Biomimicry look for inspiration in nature to create new designs
Show full summary Hide full summary

Similar

How to improve your SAT math score
Brad Hegarty
The SAT Math test essentials list
lizcortland
Language Development
aliceschofs
Development and Inequality Junior Cert
Gaeilge SPC
Sustainable development
Alexander Rehn
RE Keywords - Paper 1 - Religion and life
Kerris Linney
Command Words
Mr Mckinlay
Quick tips to improve your Exam Preparation
James Timpson
LOGARITHMS
pelumi opabisi
Flashcards for CPXP exam
Lydia Elliott, Ed.D
CCNA Security 210-260 IINS - Exam 1
Mike M