C1 Metals and their uses

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Question Answer
Where are metals found? In the Earth's crust.
What non-metal are metals normally combined when its ore is found? Oxygen
Define: Ore A rock that contains enough of a metal to make it economic to extract it.
What is the general process ores have to go through to produce the pure metal? -> Ore is found. -> It is concentrated. -> Metal is extracted. -> Metal is purified.
How is a copper ore concentrated? 1. It is ground up into a powder. 2. It is mixed with water and a chemical that makes copper repel water. 3. Air is bubbled through the mixture. 4. Copper floats on top as froth. 5. Froth is scraped off.
What factors are considered when extracting a metal? 1. How easy it is to extract the metal. 2. How much metal the ore contains. 3. How expensive the method is. 4. How much the metal can be sold for. 5. How much in demand is there for the metal.
Define: Native state When metals are found as elements naturally.
Which metals are found in their native state? Unreactive metals Gold, Silver, Platinum
What is the process by which Gold may need to be extracted? Panning Tiny flakes have to be physically separated from sand and rocks
What influences the way we extract a metal? The Reactivity Series If a metal is less reactive than carbon, it is reduced by carbon. If a metal is more reactive than carbon, it has to be extracted through electrolysis.
Define: Reactivity Series A table which shows how reactive each element is compared to the others. Reactive metals are at the top. Unreactive metals are at the bottom.
Define: Reduction The removal of oxygen from a compound.
What process do we use to extract Iron? Reduction by carbon.
Where do we extract Iron? In a blast furnace.
Give the equation of what we do to extract Iron. iron oxide + carbon -> iron + carbon dioxide
Why does Iron straight from the blast furnace have limited uses? It contains 96% Iron. This makes it brittle.
Why does Iron straight from the blast furnace have SOME uses? It is hard and can't be easily compressed.
Define: Cast Iron Iron that has come straight from the blast furnace.
What are the uses of Cast Iron? Used to make: wood- burning stoves man-hole covers on roads engines
Define: Pure Iron Iron which doesn't have any impurities. It is soft and easily-shaped.
Define: Steel An alloy of Iron. By adding different amounts of elements, we can change the properties of the Iron.
Define: Carbon steels Steels made of Iron and carbon. They contain 0.03% to 1.5% carbon.
Define: High Carbon Steel Steels that have relatively high carbon content. It is very strong and brittle.
Define: Low Carbon Steel It contains low amounts of carbon. It is soft and easily- shaped. It is not as strong. It is less likely to shatter.
Define: Mild Carbon Steel Type of LOW CARBON STEEL It contains less than 0.1% carbon. Easily pressed into shape. Used in making car bodies.
Why are Low-alloy steels more expensive than carbon steels? They contain between 1% and 5% of other metals.
Define: Stainless steels Made up of chromium, nickel and iron. hard and strong. resistant to corrosion. don't rust used for: cutlery, utensils, chemical reaction vessels.
What are the properties of Aluminium and Titanium that make them useful? They have low density but are strong.
What are the properties of Aluminium? Low density. good conductor of energy and electricity. ductile (it can be drawn into wires). Relatively REACTIVE metal but does not corrode easily (Aluminium oxide). Not strong but can be alloyed to be so.
What are the uses of Aluminium? Drink cans. cooking foil. saucepans. high-voltage electricity cables. aeroplanes and space vehicles. bicycles.
Through what process do we extract Aluminium? Electrolysis
How is Aluminium extracted? 1. Ore is separated from impurities. 2. Melted. 3. Electrolysis (electric current is passed through molten aluminium oxide at high temperatures to break it down.
Why is extracting Aluminium expensive? Need to use high temperatures to melt it. Need lots of electricity.
What are the properties of Titanium? Strong and resistant to corrosion. Oxide layer protects it. Denser than Al but less dense than others. High melting point (1660*C).
What do we use Titanium for? Bodies of aircraft and racing bikes. Parts of jet engines. Parts of nuclear reactors. Replacement hip joints.
What process do we use to extract Titanium? Use a more reactive metal to displace titanium. Use sodium and magnesium (they have to extracted through electrolysis).
Why can't we extract Titanium through reduction by carbon? Carbon reacts with the metal making it very brittle.
How do we extract Titanium? 1. Ore is processed. 2. Titanium is turned into a chloride. 3. Chloride is distilled to purify it. 4. Displacement by sodium/magnesium.
Why is it expensive to extract Titanium? There are many steps: It takes time It costs money
Give the 2 main reasons why Aluminium and Titanium are expensive to extract. There are many stages to extract them. Large amounts of energy is used.
In what ore is copper found? What does it mainly contain? Chalcocite. Copper and Sulphur.
What are the 2 main methods used to extract copper? 1. Smelting (heat copper ore in furnace with air to produce crude copper). 2. Add sulphuric acid (to produce copper sulphate and then heat it in air to produce copper and sulphur dioxide).
How is copper further purified once it has been smelted? Electrolysis (using copper electrodes). Scrap Iron Displacement (for copper sulphate solutions).
How do we extract copper from low-grade copper ores? 1. Phytomining 2. Bioleaching
How does Phytomining work? 1. Plants absorb copper ions from the ore. 2. Plants are burned. 3. Copper ions can be leached from the ash by adding sulphuric acid. 4. Copper sulphate can be purified through electrolysis or scrap ion.
How does Bioleaching work? 1. Bacteria feed on low-grade ores. 2. Biological and chemical processes take place. 3. Leachate (solution of copper ions) produced from its waste. 4. Electrolysis or Scrap Iron Displacement.
What is the need for using low-grade ores? High-grade ores are running out. Supplies of copper are finite and running out.
What do industries have to neutralise sulphur dioxide produced from smelting? Chimneys are fitted with basic 'scrubbers'
What problems do smelting and electrolysis have? Huge amounts of heat and electricity used. Costs a lot of money. Environment is affected. Acid Rain.
What is copper used for? Water pipes: doesn't react with water, can bend but hard enough. Electrical wiring: conduct electricity and every very well.
Define: Bronze Copper and Tin alloy. resistant to corrosion tough
Define: Brass Copper and zinc Harder than copper. can be hammered into sheets and pressed into intricate shapes. used for: musical instruments.
How many Aluminium alloys are there? 300 used for: armour plating military vehicles
What metal is Gold often alloyed with? Copper. Different amounts of copper in the alloy gives different shades of gold.
Where are transition metals found in the Periodic Table? Central block
What are the disadvantages of exploiting metal ores? 1. Scar the landscape. 2. Noise and Dust pollution. 3. Destroying habitats. 4. Waste rock. 5. Acid rain (sulphur dioxide emissions). 6. Ground water becomes acidic.
Why is it important to recycle metals? Saves energy. Saves money. Conserves resources (ores and fossil fuels). Prevents pollution.
What are the drawbacks of using steel in metallic structures? It rusts. Protecting the steel costs money. Coatings and painting has to be reapplied regularly.
What are the drawbacks of using metals in construction? They are more expensive than other materials (concrete). Extraction causes pollution. Extraction uses up resources. Iron and steel rust (dangerous and weak over time).