Biology- Evolution

Flashcards by le.duo2000, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by le.duo2000 about 6 years ago


Flashcards on Biology- Evolution, created by le.duo2000 on 06/07/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
evolution all of the processes that have transformed life over an immense period of time
adaptation inherited characteristic that improves an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
biodiversity the variety of life on earth
speciation development of a new species
extinction elimination of a species
fossil record chronological collection of life's remains in rock layers recorded during the passage of time
fossil preserved remains of ancient organisms
homologous structures similar structure found in more than one species that share a common ancestor
vestigial organ organ that serves no useful function in an organism
natural selection process by which individuals better suited to their environments survive and reproduce the most successfully
natural variation differences among individuals of the same species
Darwinian fitness the contribution that an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation compared to those genes contributed by others
macroevolution major biological changes evident in the fossil record
microevolution generation-to-generation change in the frequencies of alleles within a population
gene pool all the alleles in all the individuals that make up a population
allele frequency how often certain alleles occur in the gene pool
genetic equilibrium allele frequencies in a gene pool do not change
genetic drift change in gene pool due to chance
bottle neck effect gene pool greatly decrease by natural disaster such as earthquake, volcano, flood, drought, fire , epidemic
founder effect a few individuals colonize an island, lake or new habitat
gene flow exchange of genes with another population
immigration new individuals entering a population
emigration individuals leaving a population
reproductive isolation condition in which a reproductive barrier keeps two species from interbreeding
geographic isolation separation of populations as a result of geographic change or a migration to a geographically isolated place
adaptive radiation the evolution of many species from a common ancestor because of diverse environments
directional selection when individuals at one end of the curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or other end
stabilizing selection individuals near the center of the curve have higher fitness than individuals at either ends of the curve
disruptive selection individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle
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