Edexcel GCSE Russian History Flashcards


Flashcards on Edexcel GCSE Russian History Flashcards, created by Hannah Toseland on 06/08/2015.
Hannah Toseland
Flashcards by Hannah Toseland, updated more than 1 year ago
Hannah Toseland
Created by Hannah Toseland over 7 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
What were the Bolsheviks response to the Civil War? 1) Enlarging the Red Army 2) Continuing the Cheka's Red Terror against political opponents -historians estimate hundreds of thousands of executions during the Civil War 3) Introducing War Communism
Why did the Bolsheviks (reds) win the war? (9points) 1) War Communism supplied army efficiently as possible 2) They clamped down on resistance to the state (via the Cheka) 3) Trotsky was a good Red Army leader he made inspiring speeches, gave out luxuries and put on entertainments 4) Political Commisar made sure troops believed in Bolshevik ideals 5) Red Army had 'interior lines' 6) White's only shared aim was to get rid of Bolsheviks -bad at co-operating 7) Whites had lots of officers but not enough soldiers so conscripted peasants who didn't want the Tsar back 8) Whites didn't treat their troops well so lots deserted ASAP 9) The end of WW1 meant Allies had no reason to want Russia to fight Germany again
What were the effects of the civil war? (6 points) 1) Damaged land, property, road and rail links and telegraph lines 2) Civilian Casualties 3) Skilled workers fled 4) Production only 37% what it was in 1913 (due to peasants hiding crops etc & treaty of Brest-Litovsk) 5) Bolsheviks less popular 6) Drought hit 1920 leading to starvation
Describe the new Constitution in July 1918 Each arrow means elected (apart from the last which means they are). All workers could vote -apart from those who made a living off other workers ie: landlords As of Dec 1920 the CPC could pass urgent laws without approval of CEC
What did new constitution in July 1918 state in regards to land and work All land and businesses (with over 10 workers) belonged to state
What did the new constitution in July 1918 theoretically give? Free speech Free healthcare Free press Free education
When did War Communism begin? May 1918
What were the four main elements of War Communism? 1) Ending the market for food -peasants couldn't sell crops: the state left them what they needed and took the rest 2) Assumed complete control of industry so all of it was used for war effort 3) Having total control of banks, money and prices 4) Cut back on people's rights: banned strikes and used Red Terror to destroy opposition
One positive and one negative of War Communism Positive: gave army sufficient supplies -as they always came first Negative: most others faced extreme hardship
Why was 1921 such a disastrous year? 1) Famine 2) Industries producing almost no consumer goods 3) Riots in the countryside and strikes in the cities
What was the Kronstadt Mutiny? A call for 'a third revolution' in March 1921 in a naval base near Petrograd
What did the sailors in Kronstadt demand in March 1921? (6 points) 1) Re-election of all soviets by a secret ballot 2) Freedom of speech for workers, peasants and revolutionary political parties 3) Freedom for all political prisoners 4) Ending the Red Terror 5) Free Trade Unions 6) Freedom for the peasants to farm as they wanted
What were the results of the Kronstadt Mutiny? (2 points) 1) The Red Army troops crushed the munity 2) NEP -as the Soviets were shocked/scared by the mutiny
Describe the five key features of the NEP 1) Money re-introduced with a new coinage: workers paid again and there was a new state bank 2) State stopped taking crops form peasants & if they grew more than they needed they could sell at 10% tax -in crops 3) Factories under 20 workers could be privately owned and run to make a profit 4) State bought in foreign 'experts' to run the factories who were paid more than the workers 5) Anyone could open up a shop to sell/hire goods for a profit: 'NEPmen'
Did the NEP work -and why? Yes 1)Agricultural Production went up: 77.7mil hectares of grain growing in 1922 and 98.1mil in 1924 2) Factory production went up -but at a slower rate so prices high until 1924- in June 21 99% cotton mills not working but in 1926 90% were working 3) Return to money for wages instilled confidence in people as they could make a profit and trading helped economy
When did Lenin dictate his Testamony? December 1922- he'd had a stroke in May 1922 and another in December
When did Lenin die? 21st January 1924
After Lenin's death who were the seven Politburo members? Trotsky, Stalin, Rykov, Kamenev, Zinoviev, Bukharin and Tomsky who competed for power.
What were Stalin's strengths? 1) Ambitious: believed the Soviet Union had to modernise quickly to be strong enough to withstand a western invasion 2) Charming 3) Clever 4) Excellent organiser and planner
What were Stalin's weaknesses? 1) Short temper 2) Overly suspicious
Who led Lenin's funeral march and speech and why? Stalin -so he seemed like the most important. Trotsky wasn't in Moscow when Lenin died and missed the funeral.
Describe Trotsky's removal 1) Shut out of lots of decision making 2) Stalin & supporters spread rumours he never had Lenin's approval & he disrupted Politburo work 3) 1925- resigned as Comissar of War 4) 1926- expelled from Politburo 5) 1927- expelled from Communist Party 6) 1928- exiled to Kazakhstan 7)1929- exiled from Soviet Union
By 1928 who had become the clear leader of the Party and how? Stalin: allied with Bukharin and Rykov against Zinoviev, Kamenev and Trotsky. He used rumours to discredit them. Kamenev was expelled from the Party at the same time as Trotsky and Kamenev followed at the end of that year.
What was the OPGU? The Unified State Political Administration 1923-34 (the Cheka under a different name)
What were the tactics of the OPGU? 1) Arrest and gain confessions by torture 2) Imprison people in camps without trial 3) Show trials 4) Send people to look for sabotage by 'anti-communists' 5) Purges 6) Encouraged people to inform on others
How many people were in prison camps in 1928 vs in 1938? 30,000 7million
What were Gulags? Prison camps (named after the department that ran them)
Who were purged by the OPGU? 1) The Politburo 2) the Communist Party 3) Teachers 4) Engineers, scientists and industrial workers 5) The armed forces 6) Secret police Anyone though to be 'enemies of the people)
What were the years 1936-38 known as? The Great Terror
What happened to those that were purged? Executed, exiled abroad or exiled to Gulags
When did show trials begin? 1936
What happened in the show trials? They would last a few minutes, those accused would always be guilty and were either shot or sent to the gulag
What was the importance of show trials? 1) Ordinary people didn't know, at first, how unfair they were 2) The accused usually confessed -this was reported 3) The trials made people want to unite with Stalin against a revolution 4) Scared people and made them less likely to be critical
What were the effects of the purges 1) created a climate of fear thus enforcing obedience but increasing resentment 2) took away people's trust in justice system 3) killed about a million people 4) sent about 7 million to prison 5) lost useful people at all levels: about a third of the Party and 13/15 Red Army generals 6) removed a lot of skilled workers form industry leading to reduced factory production 7) replaced experienced people with Stalin's yes-men so the country became weaker
Why did Stalin use propaganda (5 reasons) 1) To turn people against his enemies 2) To get people to accept his decisions 3) To get people to put up with hardships 4) To get people to work harder 5) To build up a 'cult of Stalin'
Describe the types of propaganda Radio and Newspapers were controlled by state to produce Stalinist propaganda People wrote songs, poems and books Government sent officials all over USSR to give talks about sticking together for the USSR Banners and posters everywhere Each policy (ie collectivisation) came with its own propaganda campaign Stalin shown in photos in different regions of USSR smiling to show popularity Foreign visitors taken to 'show places'
Describe Propaganda in Education 1) Textbooks full of propaganda 2) Teachers were purged if didn't provide Stalinist views of things 3) When history changed -as people fell out of favour with Stalin- children pasted over people's faces 4) Children encouraged to denounce anti-Stalinist family and friends
Why did Stalin build up a cult of Lenin? Lenin was widely loved so Stalin made him seem more important to make Stalin seem like the natural successor
Describe the theoretical 1936 Constitution Praised as 'most democratic system in the world' Supreme Soviet made up of Soviet of the Union and Soviet of Nationalities now ran the country. Everyone voted directly for representatives. Everyone was given the right to education. The local laws of 15 republics supposed to be as important as laws from Moscow.
Describe the actual 1936 Constitution The Supreme Soviet only met for a few days each year. The Politburo still had real power and candidates for elections were state approved. Only one party (not democratic) and guaranteed right ie right to proper trial could be ignored in 'the interest of national security'
How did Censorship interfere with culture? Stalin wanted a culture available to everyone. Writers, poets, artists and musicians had to produce 'low' work with a simple patriotic message. Writing 'high' work made you an 'enemy of the people' = arrest or gulag. For example Eisenstein's film about 1905 revolution considered good but his next film referred to Trotsky so was censored.
How did Stalin censor the past? He had censors that removed/ changed evidence from the past ie blot out faces with black ink as a kind of warning about what happened to opponents
Why were collectivisation and industrialisation necessary? To modernise Soviet Union. Would have been better if he did them slowly as people weren't trained in these methods but Stalin thought they were too behind already. Food shortages meant collectivisation necessary. Industry collapsed in civil war so had to start from scratch with foreign 'specialists'
When did collectivisation start? 1928
What were the two types of collective farms? Kolkhozy- run by a committee of peasants Sovkozy- large state farms run by manager which often had more facilities ie nurseries and were better organised (visitors taken to these ones)
How did collective farms work? The land belonged to the state and peasants had to meet production targets . They told the state what the farms needed to feed people and have seed for the next year & state approved this. Peasants couldn't leave to work into towns. They were organised into 'brigades' of families. Each person worked a set number of days on kolkhozy & jobs like repairing roads set by the state. State supposed to provide homes, equipment, food, fuel, clothing, education &healthcare.
Did peasants like collectivisation? Most didn't. They disliked being old what to do.
What were kulaks and how did the state respond to them? Peasants who benefited on NEP (richer) so had own workers and took on more land to farm. Some treated workers badly. State pretended they were the only ones resisted. Kulaks were hated and feared
Describe the resistance to collectivisation When given a choice many didn't join a kolkhoz -didn't feel responsible for producing food for workers. But state needed to feed everyone so it was enforced. Many peasants killed animals, hid seed, crops and tools. Between 1929 and 33 1/2 pigs slaughtered.
What was Stalin's reaction to the resistence to collectivisation 1) Sent out officials to search for hidden crops, salted down meet and tools (if they failed he sent in army -some died trying) 2) 'Dekulakisation' between 1930+31 about 600,000 farms dukalakised. Anyone who objected was automatically counted as a kulak 3) From 1932 onwards anyone who resisted was a kulak and people were shot if they resisted arrest.
How was collectivisation a failure? 1) Famine of 1932-33 as peasants destroyed crops about 3million starved many though Stalin didn't help on purpose 2) People worked as hard as they did not to get fined, damaged machinery or misused -as didn't learn 3) New machines often faulty due to high production targets and unskilled workers 4) Still wasn't accepted as an idea- peasants wanted own land
What did Stalin do in 1935 for the peasants? Introduced a Kolkhoz Charter: allowed peasants about an acre of land to grow own crops on
Successes of collectivisation By 1935 over 90% land collectivised & steep fall in gran production and animals began to recover (though might have happened anyways) By 1934 rationing of bread and lots of other foods ended. Could profit from exports to earn foreign currency needed for imports for industrialisation
What was Gosplan and when was it set up? 1921 the State Planning Committee which had the job of making industrialisation work
What were the five year plans? Industrialisation targets for The Soviet Union and form that each min etc had it's own target.
Describe the features of the First Five Year Plan 1928-32 Targets for iron, coal, steel, oil and electricity. By the end of 1929 posters urging to complete in four years -according to official statistics it did but in reality targets not met till 1940s
Describe the features of the second five year plan 1933-37 Iron, Coal, Steel, Oil, Electricity, Tractors, Combine Harvesters and extending railways. Had significantly lower targets. Met them
Describe the features of the third five year plan 1938-41 First to include 'luxury' consumer items ie radios and bikes. Was interrupted by WW2 1939
What were Stakhanovites? Workers sent into factories to encourage production and to explain new production techniques in a move to mass production & organise work efficiently
Who was Alexi Stakhanov? Became famous in 1st 5 year plan. Coal miner who mined 102 tonnes of coal in 6hour shift. Gosplan publicised him and encouraged workers to exceed production targets for rewards.
What happened in Magnitogorsk? In 1929 1157 people living there in temp huts with no roads, no drains, no electricity. By 1932 100000 people living there with brick built houses, paved roads, electricity and drains.
Achievements of Industrialisation 1) Magnitogorsk example 2) Unemployment dropped sharply 3)Higher standard of living 4) Able to repel a German invasion in 1941
Problems of indsutrialisation 1) Aiming for high productivity not good quality 2) Shortages of some goods meant people took bribes and black market sprang up 3) Many workers not properly trained =poor quality work & factories 4) Factories had few safety features, inefficient and high accident rates 5) Factory fumes affected health of people living nearby
Describe the issues and solution to Stalingrad tractor factory Initial target 500 tractors a month By Sept 1930 (from June) had produce 43 The average life of which were 70 hours then fell apart By 1939 producing 1/2 tractors in USSR. Production in USSR of tractors went form 1928 1300 to 50,000 in 1932
What did Gosplan do to solve problems of industrialisation? Set up a huge bureaucracy but it had it was slow and inefficient: could wait months for a worker to arrive and mend machine that another worker could have fixed if been allowed. Gosplan began to ease of rapid production pressure to increase quality
Describe the Social Inequality in 1939 Stalin lived in Moscow and had several homes in the countryside and ate and drank well (like the Tsar) Workers in favour with the state got rewards ie concert tickets but those not got worse housing and lower places on waiting lists for operations. At worst 'enemies of the state' were exiled to camps or regions such as Kazakhstan
What became 'counter-revolutionary' from 1932? Support for regional identity. The state encouraged 'Russification' (creating a dominant Russian culture)
Could you follow any religion in the Soviet Union by 1940? Atheism was encouraged and all religion was scorned
How many churches were in Russia in 1940 vs in 1915 500 vs 54000
Had living conditions improved by 1939? Better conditions but amount of space allowed from 1926 to 1939 decreased from 5.6sq m to 4.3sp m
Describe the reforms for women under Stalin (5pts) 1) non-church marriage set up 2) divorce made simple 3) women had equal voting rights to men 4) equal pay for equal work 5) equal educational oppurtunities
How many women were in work in 1928 vs in 1940 3mil to over 13mil
What did the state do to increase the number of women in the workforce? Provided free childcare until they were old enough to go to school. Free cantines provided food for people at work and children at nurseries and schools. Free laundries did the washing. Unfortunately nurseries badly overcrowded as without childcare women couldn't go to work
What was 'progressive piecework' and when was it introduced? 1934: workers were now paid by the amount they produced with the rewards the system this encouraged production
Why did workers move around a lot and how did the state try to control this? Looked for better jobs, the state bought in a work passport so they could only move with a stamped passport. But workers just forged these in 1937 about 30% of all workers were still changing jobs every three months
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