BIOH111 Session 1

Cass Dunn
Flashcards by Cass Dunn, updated more than 1 year ago
Cass Dunn
Created by Cass Dunn almost 6 years ago
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BIOH122 BIOH111 Flashcards on BIOH111 Session 1, created by Cass Dunn on 07/09/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Anatomy The science of body structures and the relationships among them.
Physiology The science of body functions and how they work.
Homeostasis The condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body’s internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body’s many regulatory processes. In response to changing conditions, the body’s equilibrium can shift among points in a narrow range that is compatible with maintaining life.
Feedback Systems A group of receptors and effectors communicating with their control centre forms a feedback system that can regulate a controlled condition in the body’s internal environment. The response of the system “feeds back” information to change the controlled condition in some way, either negating it (negative feedback) or enhancing it (positive feedback).
Disorder Any abnormality of structure or function.
Disease An illness characterised by a recognisable set of signs and symptoms.
Symptoms Subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer. Eg. Headaches and nausea.
Signs Objective changes that a clinician can observe and measure. Eg. Fever and rash.
Name the three body positions Anatomical position Prone (reclining face down) Supine (reclining face up)
Define anatomical position The standard position of reference. Refers to the patient: o Standing upright. o Facing the observer with head level. o Eyes facing forward. o Feet flat on the floor. o Arms at the sides. o Palms turned forward.
Name the five body regions Head Neck Trunk Upper Limb Lower Limb
Superior Towards the head
Inferior Away from the head
Anterior (ventral) At the front of the body
Posterior (dorsal) At the back of the body
Medial Nearer to the midline of the body
Lateral Farther from the midline of the body
Intermediate Between two structures
Ipsilateral On the same side of the body as another structure
Contralateral On the opposite side of the body from another structure.
Proximal Nearer to the attachment of the limb to the trunk
Distal Farther from the attachment of the limb to the trunk
Superficial Toward or on the surface of the body
Deep Away from the surface of the body
Distinguish between planes and sections of the body Planes = imaginary flat surfaces that divide the body or organs into definite areas Sections = a cut of the body or organ along one of the planes
Name the five planes of the body Midsagittal Parasagittal Frontal Transverse Oblique
Name the two body cavities and their substituent parts Dorsal = cranial & vertebral cavities Ventral = thoracic & abdominopelvic cavities
What body organ separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity Diaphragm
Define serous membranes and why are they important Thin, slippery membranes that line body cavities not open to the outside Visceral layer covers viscera within cavities Parietal layer lines walls of cavities Serous fluid reduces friction, thus allowing viscera to slide somewhat during movement
Pleural membrane Serous membrane that surrounds the lungs Visceral pleura clings to the surface of the lungs Parietal pleura lines the chest wall
Pericardium Serous membrane of the pericardial cavity Visceral pericardium covers the surface of the heart Parietal pericardium lines the chest wall
Peritoneum Serous membrane of the abdominal cavity Visceral peritoneum covers the abdominal viscera Parietal peritoneum lines the abdominal wall
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