Chapter 1-5 Study Guide

Paige Price
Flashcards by Paige Price, updated more than 1 year ago
Paige Price
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Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interaction

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Three Perspectives of Defining Deviance Absolutist Perspective, Relativist Perspective, Social Power Perspective
Absolutist Perspective -Deviance is considered a simple task and implies widespread consensus about what is deviant. Absolutist views of deviance are eternal and global. Ex. If something is judges to have been morally wrong in the past, it should be recognized now and in the future.
Social Constructionist Approach views deviance as social products and focuses on defining deviance and their definitions than the acts that generate deviant reactions.
Relativist Perspective Deviance is not universal, but varies to suit the people who hold them. Deviance is in the eye of the beholder rather than the act itself.
Social Power Perspective This builds on the relativist perspective. Focuses on the influence that powerful groups and classes have in creating and applying laws
Three Types of Norms Folkways, Mores, Laws
Folkways Simple everyday norms based on custom, tradition, or etiquette Ex. Standards of dress, eating behavior, failing to wash hands.
Mores norms based on broad societal morals whose infraction would generate more serious social condemnation Ex. Drug addiction, illegitimate childbearing, interracial marriage
Laws the strongest norms because they are supported by codified social sanctions. If violated, they are subjected to arrest and punishment. Ex. Murder, rape, arson, robbery
ABCs of Deviance Attitudes- deviant because of belief systems Behaviors- deviant for their outward actions Conditions- deviant based on a condition acquired from birth
Three Categories of S's Sin Sick Selected
Negative Deviance under conformity or non-conformity that is also negatively evaluated
Rate Busting negatively appraised overconformity. Operates at two levels: the idealized (belived sublimely better but improbable for most) and the realistic (viewed as achievable). Ex. Gifted students are often rejected by their peers
Deviance Admoration focuses on underconformity or nonconformity that is favorably assessed. Labeled as "John Gotti phenomenon". Ex. Society that castigates individuals who do not meet culturally dominant and created aesthetic images of appearance, there are also those that admire them (redheads and people of size).
Positive Deviance overconformity that is responded to in a conformity fashion. The "Mother Theresa phenomenon". Ex. Good neighbors and saints; physically attractive people
Interactionist Perspective defines deviance as the infraction of some agreed-upon rule. Asks who breaks the rules, and to see factors in their personalities and life situations that could account for the infractions.
Relativism: Labeling Theory The essence of deviance is not contained within individuals' behaviors but in the response others have to these. Deviance is a social construction forged by diverse audiences.
Social Reality of Crime helps us begin to examine the legal order critically
I. The Official Definition of Crime Crime as a legal definition of human conduct is created by agents of the dominant class in a politically organized society. Ex. Legislators, police, prosecutors, judges
II. Formulating Definitions of Crime Definitions of crime are composed of behaviors that conflict with the interests of the dominant class. These change as the interests of the dominant class change.
III. Applying Definitions of Crime Definitions of crime are applied by the class that has the power to shape the enforcement and administration of criminal law.
IV. How Behavior Patterns Develop in Relation to Definitions of Crime Behavior patterns are structured in relation to definitions of crime, and people engage in actions that have relative probabilities of being defined as criminal.
V. Constructing and Ideology of Crime An ideology of crime is constructed and diffused by the dominant class to secure its hegemony. People behave in reference to the social meanings they attach to their experiences.
VI. Constructing the Social Reality of Crime is constructed by the formulations and application of definitions of crime, the development of behavior patterns in relation to these definitions and the construction of an ideology of crime.
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