W3k Q&A Intercultural Communication

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Managerial Communication MGG1100 (Wk 3 Intercultural Communication) Flashcards on W3k Q&A Intercultural Communication, created by Tash_02 on 08/13/2015.

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Question Answer
Identify the six phases of Bennett’s model of intercultural communication. (pg. 503) Denial, defence reversal, minimisation, acceptance, adaptation, integration.
Identify at least four characteristics of masculine cultures in Hofstede’s model. (pg. 503 Characteristics of masculine cultures: • Challenge and recognition in jobs important • Belief in individual decisions • Men should be tough and take care of performance; women should be tender and take care of relationships • Sympathy for the strong • Live in order to work • Fewer women in management • Resolution of conflicts through denying them or fighting until the best ‘man’ wins • Less sickness absence • Competitive advantage in manufacturing industries, price competition, heavy products and bulk chemistry
Identify at least four characteristics of feminine cultures in Hofstede’s model. (pg. 503) Characteristics of feminine cultures: • Cooperation at work and relationship with boss important • Belief in group decisions • Men should be tender and take care of both performance and relationships; women should be the same • Sympathy for the weak • Work in order to live • More women in management • Resolution of conflicts through problem solving, compromise and negotiation • More sickness absence • Competitive advantage in service industries, consulting, live products and biochemistry
Identify at least four of the cultural dimensions or attributes of the GLOBE model. (pg. 503) Assertiveness • Future orientation • Gender differentiation • Uncertainty avoidance • Power distance • Institutional emphasis on collectivism versus individualism • In-group collectivism • Performance orientation • Humane orientation
Context also depends upon what generation within a culture we are talking about.’ What does this mean? (pg. 503 Younger generations, particularly in cultures that have traditionally been high context, may be taking on low context characteristics because globalisation processes tend to lead to the spread of low context values and behaviour
Name at least two nations described by Huntington as being ‘torn countries.’ (pg. 503) • Turkey • Russia • Mexico • Australia
What possible strengths and weaknesses might there be in a workplace diversity program? (pg. 503) Responses will vary. The topic is intrinsically controversial, mirroring as it does at the organisational level broader issues in societies, such as multiculturalism and sex role issues. One of the best models of the strengths of diversity is Joshi’s (p. 492-493), and equity and efficiency in organisations may be linked to diversity. Weaknesses might include points such as diversity not always correlating with efficiency and effectiveness, beneficiaries of equal opportunity perhaps being perceived to not have attained their positions solely on merit, ‘diversity fatigue,’ and the potentially naïve teleology of models such as those of Bennett, Deardorff and Joshi, which might seem to imply that more communication will always lead to less conflict and misunderstanding.
Name at least three ‘rules’ relating to values and beliefs. (pg. 503) What rituals and protocol are involved in meeting a person or group? What rituals and protocol are involved when you depart? • How important is religious ritual in everyday life? • Do females have the same rights as males? • What are dominant attitudes towards homosexuality? • Is there more sympathy for the strong than for the weak? • Is risk taking admired or frowned on? • Are strangers welcomed or are they viewed with suspicion? • What are the attitudes towards processes of globalisation? • How much tolerance is there of ambiguity and uncertainty? • Is competition or cooperation more important? • If an individual achieves success and wealth, is the expectation that the wealth should be kept by the individual or shared communally? • How is the year structured in terms of holidays (holy days) and festivals? • What differences in values and beliefs are there between different generations?
Identify at least four ‘rules of negotiation’ that apply equally to Western and Chinese negotiators. (pg. 503) Always set explicit limits or ranges for the negotiation process. • Always seek to establish ‘general principles’ early in the negotiation. • Always focus on potential areas of agreement and seek to expand them. • Avoid taking the negotiation issues in sequence. • Avoid excessive hostility, confrontation and emotion. • Always give the other party something to ‘take home’. • Always prepare to negotiate as a team
Why might time be a problem for an American negotiator negotiating with people from other cultures? (pg. 503) Americans, as low-context people, tend to be monochronic. ‘Time is money’ for many Americans. Often negotiations in America are quick, effective and pragmatic transactions; but in other cultures, more time is spent in building rapport and in finding out about the other side. This is primarily because negotiation is seen as a prelude to a long-term association, and thus negotiation never really ends. High-context cultures, with their networks of interconnecting relationships, provide a situation where people expect to see business partners face-to-face over long periods of time. This facilitates communication and builds trust. Many Americans seem, to people of other cultures, in too much of a hurry to build this trust. As a Hong Kong businessman put it, Americans are ‘McDonaldised’: ‘Whatever they want to do, they want results right away’.
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