unit 3: social inequality

Angel Chew
Flashcards by Angel Chew, updated more than 1 year ago
Angel Chew
Created by Angel Chew about 6 years ago
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social stratification a hierarchy in which groups have different statuses and different levels of privilege
social class where people in a society is grouped by their shared economic interests and social interests
status a position that someone has in society
industrial society societies that use technology for mass production, in contrast to traditional societies
minority group a category of people lacking power; can be based on factors such as religion, disability and age
slavery a stratification system in which one group is treated as the legal property of another group
caste a closed stratification system found in india
closed society a society where mobility between different levels of stratification is not possible
traditional societies societies that are still predominantly agricultural and have not yet become industrial
discrimination when an individual or group suffers a disadvantage because of their characteristics, for example being refused a job
ageism prejudice or discrimination against someone based on their age
life chances the opportunities that people have to improve their lives
fatalism individuals' belief that they cannot control what happens to them
civil rights rights that protect the freedom of individuals
human rights a wider category than civil rights, including political rights
deferred gratification being able to set long term goals, planning for the future (middle and upper class)
immediate gratification choosing instant satisfaction rather than waiting for a greater reward in the future (working class)
working class manual or blue-collar workers; lower life chances
middle class professional and other non-manual workers, below the upper class and below the working class
minority ethnic group a minority group with a distinct national or cultural tradition
social inequality the inequality between groups in a stratification system, for example in income or wealth
distribution of wealth the way in which wealth is distributed
welfare state the way in which governments try to provide for the less well off and reduce social inequality
meritocracy a society in which individuals achieve the level that their talents and abilities deserve
dependency culture a set of values leading people to lose the ability to look after themselves so they become dependent, for example, on welfare benefits
redistribution of wealth advocated by marxists and others to achieve greater equality by giving some of the wealth of the better-off to those who are less wealthy
underclass a group below the working class that is effectively cut off from the rest of society
marxism a theoretical perspective that sees conflict between classes as the most important feature of society
disability covers a wide range of types of impairment in how the body functions in carrying out activities
cycle of poverty or cycle of deprivation when poverty tends to be inherited, so the new generation cannot escape the poverty of their parents
social exclusion people who are unable to take part in the society in the same way as most people are excluded from social goods
culture of poverty when poor people have a set of values that keep them in poverty
capitalism the economic system of most countries today based on private ownership of the means of production
bourgeoisie the ruling or upper class in marxist class theory
privileged groups groups enjoying higher status than others or material advantages
racism prejudice or discrimination against an individual or group because of their ethnicity or perceived race
elite a privileged group at the group
apartheid the stratification system in south africa until 1994 based on keeping racial groups apart
scapegoating when individuals or groups are blamed and sometimes punished for something which is not their fault
feminism political movement and a sociological perspective advocating equality of the sexes 1. radical 2. marxist 3. liberal 4. black
patriarchy the dominance of men over women and children in society
glass ceiling the unseen barrier that seems to prevent women from achieving the highest positions at work
gendered division of labour the way that societies expect women to be responsible for some tasks (such as cleaning and preparing food) and men for others
new working class the supposed new class formed by lower middle-class workers merging with the traditional working class
social mobility the movement of individuals or groups from one class to another
intergenerational social mobility movement between classes in society from one generation to the next, so that when a child grows up she is in a different class from her parents
intragenerational social mobility movement between classes within one generation, so that an individual is born into one class and moves into another
open society a society in which it is possible to move easily from one class to another
blue collar worker a manual worker, a member of the working class
white collar worker a non-manual worker, member of the middle class
embourgeoisiement the theory that the higher levels of the working class are becoming middle class
vertical segregation occupying different levels within a hierarchy
horizontal segregation differences in the number of people from different groups (such as the sexes) in different occupations
reserve army of labour a karl marx's critique of political economy it refers to the unemployed and under-employed in capitalist society
lifestyle a way of life; it denotes the interests, opinions, behaviours and behavioural orientations of an individual, group or culture
market situation the economic situation that one finds themselves in
income the sum of earnings from work and other sources
poverty line the level of income below which people are judged to be in poverty
relative poverty being poor in relation to others in the same society
unskilled worker workers who need no or minimal training to perform their work
skilled worker workers who need skills acquired through training to perform their work
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