Unit 1: Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution- Evolution of Life

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advantages of a few traits, evolution wise
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Membranes -Protected and covered each organelle -allowed separation; organelles wouldn't mix -controls what comes in and out of cell
Photosynthesis -allowed E production -sunlight (plentiful resource) could be converted to E
Aerobic Respiration -helped an organism utilize oxygen -organism produces more E, because it's energy efficient
Diploid -have 2 sets of chromosomes -when a chromosome damaged, there is backup -more chromosomes=more genes=more genetic diversity -sexual reproduction possible
Multicellularity -more morphological diversity -bigger->fewer predators -more dif. cells-> dif. fxns -more complex->back up cells
Why did marine creatures come before land creatures? Land didn't develop on Earth til later, so it would have taken a longer time to evolve, no ozone layer-> creatures died of radiation
Endosymbiosis theory of eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic cell must have been ingested-> didn't digest-> became mutually beneficial for each other-> became inseparable/single cell
Why prokaryote before eukaryote? -Prokaryotes are more basic/less complex -as time went on, prokaryotes ate other organisms->eukaryotes -basic life is simple
Why did flowers evolve so late? -first plants only released seeds/spores -as time went on->plants evolved-> competition for pollinators -Flowers are more complex-> require land to grow
Why did it take so long for the O2 concentration in the atm. to rise? -Prokaryotes used photosynthesis to make oxygen-> oxygen used to make water-> after water saturated, it went into atm.
Why did photosynthesis come before respiration? -Oxygen wasn't available -finding a way to make energy w/ plentiful resource was necessary -photosyn. makes oxygen-> need O2 to breathe
Evolution trends simple->complex haploid->diploid aquatic-> terrestrial few big extinctions
Homologous organisms w/ these structures share a common ancestor but might not look alike
Homologies Anatomical: shared physical struc. and ancestry btwn. dif. species (like similar looking embryos, vestigial struc.) Molecular: similarities among organisms at the molecular level (like DNA and RNA)
Analogous -organisms who look alike but come from different ancestors -they look alike because they live in a similar habitat
Parsimony/ Occam's Razor Using the simplest explanation that is consistent w/ facts to take away unnecessary complications like using the fewest base changes and the fewest evolutionary events-> used to make phylogenetic trees
Various sources of fossils -sedimentary rock -ice -amber
Relative dating of fossils know when the fossil was laid down-> only know the sequence of fossils
Absolute dating of fossils know the exact age of a fossil
Why fossil record is incomplete When animals died, they might not have done it in the right place/time so the few fossils that we have endured geological forces and survived
Continental drift and phylogeny CD altered habitats/ destroyed them, caused climate change -> organisms had to adapt, relocate, or go extinct. For example, tectonic plates moved-> oceans got deeper, lower sea level, drained coastal seas and killed off species in that habitat.
Half-life and radiometric dating Used to find absolute age of fossil. Decaying of radioactive isotopes. Use rate of decay (measured in 1/2 lives) -> knowing #of years/half life will tell the age of a fossil.
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