Geography multi choice flashcards

Flashcards by zeinab.hassano, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by zeinab.hassano about 5 years ago


Flashcards on Geography multi choice flashcards, created by zeinab.hassano on 09/21/2015.

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Question Answer
Demography deficit Higher proportion of dependents to workers. Low economic growth.
Demography dividend Higher proportion of workers to dependents. High economic growth.
Total dependency ratio Number of dependents over 100 workers
Youth-dependent ratio Number of people aged 15 and under to the working age population
Old-dependency ratio Number of people aged 65 and above to the working age population
Population growth rate The increase/decrease in population during a period of time expressed as % of the population when the period began.
Demographic change/Population growth rate Fertility(crude birth rate), mortality(crude death rate) and net migration
Total fertility rate Average number of children born per woman if they would live past their reproductive age
Crude birth rate Number of births in a year. Expressed as % of the population or per 1000 people.
Crude death rate Average number of deaths in a year. Expressed as % of the population or per 1000 people.
Development A multi dimensional process. Improvement in human welfare, quality of life, social well being. Satisfying the populations needs and wants.
Sustainable development Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Economic growth Increase in total value of goods and services produced.
Demographic momentum Population growth caused by more women giving birth even though each has the same number of or fewer children is called “population momentum.” When the fertility rate is falling and the mortality rate is falling even more but because there are a high proportion of people from reproductive ages, the fertility remains high in several decades. Once this happens a country moves to different stage in the demographic transition model. It's common in LDC.
Demographic inertia The well-below replacement level of fertility which becomes established over several decades causing decline in population numbers
Demographic transition The changes that occurs when a country transition from high mortality and high fertility to low mortality and low fertility
Demographic transition - stage 1 High fertility and high mortality
Demographic transition - stage 2 Decline in mortality. High fertility. Increased population growth. High youth dependency ratio
Demographic transititon - stage 3 Decline in fertility. Lower youth dependency ratio. Demographic momentum
Demographic transition - stage 4 Decline in fertility and mortality. HIgh old-dependency ratio. Demographic inertia.
Urbanisation Increased proportion of people in urban areas which is due to movement from rural areas to urban areas.
GDP Gross domestic product. Measures the national income/national production and national consumption in one year. Measures the economic quality of a country.
GNP Gross national product. GDP + National income from investment abroad.
GDP/GNP per capita Average income per person in a country in one year.
PPP Purchasing power parity. An economic theory that estimates the amount of adjustment needed on the exchange rate between countries in order for the exchange to be equivalent to each currency's purchasing power.
What are the measurements of economic development? * GDP per capita * Population growth * occupational structure of the labor force * Urbanisation *Consumption per capita * Infrastructure * Social conditions(mortality, life expectancy etc.)
Multi dimensional index list 1. UNDP (United nations development programme) 2. HDI (Human development Index) 3. HSDI (Human sustainable development index)
HDI Human development index. Measure the social and economic development based on four criteria. 1. Life expetancy at birth 2. Mean years of schooling 3. Expected years of schooling 4. GNP/GDP per capita
Gini index Measures the distribution of income/welfare within a country. Can be used to compare different countries.
Low gini index Shows an equal income distribution
High Gini index Shows a high income differences between groups of people
Advantages with Gini index * earners and groups are anonymous * size of the economy is irrelevant *size of the population is irrelevant...
Disadvantage with Gini index * Different curves can have same Gini index * Doesn't measure informal sector, only measures the income * Doesn't account for the impact of progessiva taxation.
Expenditure/Consumption formula for GDP Y = C + I + E + G Y = GDP C = Consumer spending I = Investment made by industry E = excess of exports over imports G = Government spending
Gapminder It measures wealth, time and health
Development measurements * Human development index(HDI) * Happy planet index * Corruption perception index * Complex venn digram * Gini index(Social inequality)
Disadvantages with GDP * Only measures market exchange * Goods and services might be bad ones(selling nuclear weapons) * Natural resources treated as infinite * Ignores freedom and human rights * Ignores human distribution within a society * Treats the tip of the iceberg as the most important features
Human development index (HDI) Index that measures the opportunities for people. Measures * Life expectancy * Education * Wealth (access to resources needed for a decent standard of living) Index is standardised and a single index, statical not multidimensional.
Complex venn diagram A diagram that enables us to see groups of countries with similar characteristics (economic, population and political)
Happy planet index (HPI) An index that measures the environmental efficiency of delivering happy and long lives for citizen of nations. Measures how much it cost to use the planet resources for the well being of a nation’s citizens
The Great Divergence Measures the economic growth in the past 2000 yrs in different parts of the world
Consumption The consumption of material resources/goods and services and no resources consumption. It serves peoples needs, values and tastes.
Material resources consumption The consumption of natural resources
Natural capital Natural resources. E.g: species, habitats, local ecosystems, biomes, sub-soil resources etc including farmland, food, ocean, atmosphere, spiritual and recreational values.
Manufactured capital Infrastructure. E.g: roads, buildings, ports, machinery, equipment, housing, personal and commercial transport
Human capital Education, skills, knowledge, health of an individual or a population
Knowledge capital Science and technology, arts and humanitites
Instititutional capital Rule of law, social norms of behaviour, habitual social practices, economic markets, traditions, governments at all levels
When is consumption good for the human development? It is good when it: * Enlarges the capabilities(power and possibilities) of people without negatively affecting the wellbeing of others * is as fair to future generations as to the present ones * respects the carrying capacity of the planet
Globalization The process of the growing interdependence of countries resulting from their increase economic integration
The basic four material resources of the consumption 1. Water 2. Food 3. Energy 4. Minerals
Drivers of consumption/higher consumption * attainment of adequate living standard * preferences and social factors * ageing population * household structure * population movement * food requirement * consumption and population
Peak oil An assumption that the global production of oil reaches its maximum rate, after which production will gradually decline
First long wave cycle This wave cycle developed: Original industrial revolution (1784-1800) * Iron smelting * mechanization of textiles * enlightenment era
Second long wave cycle This wave cycle developed: (1845-1858) * steam engines * spread of railways system * road improvements * bessemer steel process * canal improvements
Third long wave cycle This wave cycle developed: (1896-1907) * engineering * chemicals * electricity * telegraph company network
Fourth long wave cycle This wave cycle developed: (1949-1966) * aerospace * airports, airlines *highways *electronics
Fifth long wave cycle This wave cycle developed: (1990-200?) * digital network * software * new media (social media) * biotechnologies
Post-industrial countries * Focus alot on services. * Focus less in industry. * And even less on agriculture. *Industrialisation has decreased. *E.g: Sweden, UK
Industrial countries * Focus alot in industries. *Focus less in services. * And even less on agriculture. * Industrialisation has increased. * E.g: China, Malasia, SIngapore
Liberalization ________ of trade and capital markets. It's the de-regulation of e.g. financial industry from government
Multinational companies(MNC) Companies or corporations that have offices/facilities in many different countries * It's interdepndent * Benefit from cheap labour
Fordism A system of mass production * Is in industrialised countries. (China, Malasia) * System consist also of the liberalisation of companies (de-regulation)
Export processing zones Small area which import small stuff, manufactures and exports the product * there are several zones * the country that host the zones pays the infrastructure * enhance foregin exchange earnings - which reduces poverty * part of a corrupt system - exploit the workers * mostly located in China
Age-sex pyramid * Expansive * Constrictive * Stationary
Constrictive age-sex pyramid
Stationary age-sex pyramid Stationary age-sex pyramid
Expansive age-sex pyramid
Replacement fertility It is the average number of children born to a woman so that a population can replace itself from one generation to the next.
CDO (Collateralized debt obligation) Bundled debt from different types of loans from different people. Investors sell the mortgages to investment banks, investment banks combined different loans to cdos. Investment banks sell CDOs to investors
The three agricultural revolutions 1. Neolithic revolution 2. Green revolution 3. Industrial revolution
Material economy 1. Extraction 2. Production 3. Distribution 4. Disposal(avfallhantering)
Extraction * Natural resources exploitation/trashing the planet * the west used up their natural resources and turns and use the third world’s natural resources * if you don’t buy or own a lot of stuff you/the third world people/first world people/second world people don’t have value and don’t own the natural resources
Production * Natural resources turned into products * toxins goes in and out the production * in consequence humans and the planet becomes contaminated and wasted - especially the factory workers * 4 billion toxins produced in the US
Distribution * Selling all the toxic contaminated junks/products as quickly as possible * Goals are - keep the price down - keep the people buying/stimulate the consumption - keep the products going * Externalized cost - the real cost of the production does cover the price - consumer pay less for the actual cost of the product
Consumption * our value is measured on how much we consume * ultimate goal for the western world is to consume goods.. * perceived obsolescence - convinces us to throw away stuff that is perfectly useful - companies make our products have low expectancy * more advertisement = more consumption
Disposal (avfallhantering) * pollute the natural capital and causes climate change * recycling is not the solution - doesn’t change the real solution - certain products are non-recyclable
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