GCSE Music revision 1

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GCSE Music Note on GCSE Music revision 1, created by georgie.proctor on 05/25/2014.

Created by georgie.proctor over 5 years ago
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Miss Pearson
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And the Glory of the Lord- Handel
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GCSE Music Revision 3
Understanding Music
Miss Pearson

Page 1

Handel- And The Glory Of The Lord

NB: Adagio at end

CONTEXT:  George Frideric Handel = baroque composer- baroque period= 1600-1750 for strings, chorus and organ A chorus from Handel' 'Messiah', a sacred oratorio first performed in a charity concert in Dublin in 1742 4th movement in the first movement of Messiah, tells about the promise that Christ will come to save the world (Arias= a solo, duet or trio in it) (recitatives= soloist sings freely under orchestral chords- can't be conducted- a sung narrative) Many musical ideas for just a few lines of verse, simple triple (3/4) a minuet Affection = baroque word for genre, in this case jolly

TEXTURE the texture is monophonic and homophonic with some polyphonic sections The counterpoint (2 or more melodies overlapping) is often imitative and sometimes Handel combines two different melodic ideas contrapuntally The number of voice parts singing at the same time varies from 1 to 4. The vocal textures contrast with each other. Instruments often double the voices

MELODY- 4 motifs:1) 'And the glory of the lord'- first 3 notes outlining A major triad are followed by an ascending stepwise scalic sequence- syllabic2) 'Shall be revealed'- descending scalic sequence- melismatic, the second bar is a repeat of the first bar but a semi-tone lower3) 'And all flesh shall see it together'- repeating motif with 3 statements of a descending 4th idea- melismatic4) 'For the mouth of the lord'- long dotted minim repeated notes, 8 bar phrase compared to previous 4 bar phrases, declamatory and solemn

conjunct- rhythm going stepwise

METRE AND RHYTHM Triple metre- 3/4 time, sometimes varied at cadences by the use of hemiola (using tied notes to give a feeling of three bars of duple metre). Regular on beat or crotchet movement in the bass keep the rhythm moving forward without pausing at cadences Dotted rhythms, crotchet syncopation and hemiola are used Longer note values are used to highlight 'for the..' Ending, total silence followed by a sustained plagal cadence, typical feature of Handel's choral style

TONALITYMajor key (A major): joyful, modulates to the dominant key of E major and the dominant of the dominant of B major. major keys throughout, begins and ends in A major.

RITORNELLOThe instrumental introduction in this piece is a ritornello (a little return) because some of this opening returns several times. The shorter repeats are called ritornelli

INSTRUMENTATION Violins 1 and 2, viola and double bass, cello, harpsichord, oboes and bassoons Strings mainly double the voices, all instrumental parts kept to a modest range instrumental parts based on vocal material Some short sections only accompanied by continuo instruments (cello, bass and harpsichord) Handel later added oboe and bassoon parts

HARMONY The harmony is diatonic (using only notes belonging to the key) and functional Chords mostly use root position and first inversion triads The harmonic rhythm (no. of chord changes in a bar) changes quickly Dissonances are created by suspensions and melodic decoration Most cadences are perfect, with plagal cadence at end dramatic use of rests

ornamented melodyantiphonal contrast between monophonic line followed by a homophonic tutti replystrong melody and bass linesmodulations restricted to related keysclearly contrasted stepped dynamics (terraced dynamics)

Mozart- symphony no. 40 in G minor

MOZART- 1756-1791 A musical genius and toured Europe as a child, playing the violin and piano, moved to Vienna in 1781 Composed operas such as The marriage of Figaro and The Magic Flute Other works included sonatas, 41 symphonies, string quartets and quintets and masses

CONTEXT The new classical style was clear, symmetrical and balanced Main composers of the classical period were the 3 Viennese composers- Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven Symphony no. 40 composed in 1780's and was meant to be performed in a concert hall Four movements of a symphony were usually 1. fast and in sonata form, 2. slow, 3. minuet and trio, 4. fast and in rondo, sonata or theme and variations form THE CLASSICAL STYLE Periodic regular phrasing- well balanced, graceful question and answer phrases of equal length Texture- mostly melody dominated homophony ( a melody accompanied by chords). Some polyphony occasionally used Symmetrical structure Functional harmony- (harmony emphasizing the key) Strong sense of tonality Perfect cadences used frequently to emphasize the key Clarinet added to the orchestra Music graceful and clear Harpsichord no longer in orchestra More graduation of tone than baroque more modulations than baroque The bass line not as prominent as in Baroque music STRUCTURE- sonata form: Exposition- (no introduction), first subject in G minor, transition modulates from Gm to B flat, second subject in B flat (relative major), the codetta (ending) of the exposition ends in B flat, the exposition is then repeated Development- music based on the first subject, modulates to distant keys, modulations from Gm to a chromatic chord (G#dim7) to the remote key of F#m. Then a circle of 5ths progression of Em,Am, Dm, Gm, C, F, B flat Recapitulation- first subject in Gm, transition Gm- E flat- Fm- E flat- Gm (longer than in exposition), second subject in Gm Coda in Gm- longer than the codetta in the exposition to reinforce the tonic Gm key  The phrases are in balanced periodic 4 or 8 bar units INSTRUMENTATION Strings (violins 1 and 2, cello, double bass), 1 flute, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 1 horn in B flat, 1 horn in G- NB: unusually no trumpets or timpani used Horns add to harmonies and play pedal notes, Mozart increases their range by asking for one to be crooked in G and one in B flat Woodwind are sometimes used to sustain the harmonies, but also play the melody. They play linking phrases, share the start of the 2nd subject in dialogue with the violins & opening motif of the first subject in the closing sections.  Instruments can play the theme, a chordal accompaniment, antiphony and pedal notes. Sound colour is also varied by doubling the melody using several instruments in different octaves.  DYNAMICS 1st subject is quiet, apart from a few bars of loud cadences in the middle. The transition is loud and is followed by the second subject which starts quietly but increases in volume towards the end. The closing section of the exposition contains contrasts of loud and soft dynamics The development begins and ends quietly, but has a long, loud section in the middle Dynamics in recap similar to those of the exposition, but the loud transition section is longer  Clear contrasts between forte and piano throughout molto allegro = very fastMELODY- (nb- much of the piece is based on the first 2 notes) first subject = the opening three note motif consists of an anacrusis descending step followed by a repeating note. After the three note motif is repeated three times the melody then rises a 6th and is followed by a descending stepwise pattern. The phrase is then repeated as a descending sequence transition = loud and confident rising leaps (bridge passage) between notes of chords emphasizing the first beat of the bar. purpose is to prepare for the entry of the 2nd subject in the relative major key of B flat second subject = the first three notes descend in semitones (chromatically, relaxed sighing motif). They are followed by five notes of the B flat major scale descending from dominant to tonic, the last note repeated twice before ascending stepwise a 4th. There is then a longer chromatic descending melody. Falling/ descending chromatic phrases were associated with 'sighing' or sadness and characteristic of the graceful melancholy mood.  Second part of second subject- unison violins play chromatic ascending quavers followed by strong rhythms emphasizing the main 1st and 3rd beats of the bar then a scalic descent. There are occassionally ornaments such as trills 

TEXTUREMostly homophonic but with a section of counterpoint in the development. Melodies are often doubled in octaves, and there is a lot of antiphony, MELODY DOMINATED HOMOPHONYDevelopment- contrapuntal texture in which the 1st subject is played by the low strings and bassoons and the violins have a staccato countermelody- roles then reversed for contrast.Texture also varies with loud tutti sections and quieter refined sectionsHARMONY AND TONALITY Functional with clear cadences to emphasize keys  mainly Gm or B flat frequent perfect or imperfect cadences, dominant pedal notes (to indicate a new section is about to begin), circle of 5ths (development), lush 7th chords (changing the F# to F in the transition 1st subject), dramatic chromatic diminished 7th chords, discords between the pedal and rising chromatic notes towards end of the recap PERIODIC PHRASINGquestion and answer phrases (antiphony) During the recap. the 2nd subject is in the tonic key of G minor so movement ends in the tonic key 3 other movements in the rest of the symphony imitation between instruments Mood is exciting, serious and dramatic (but 2nd subject more pathos) 2 horns crooked interval of a minor 2nd Mozart uses fragments of the melody throughout the piece uses sequences frequently countermelodies in the development uses different instruments in his melody to create timbral difference uses fragments of melody as rhythmic devices, also inverted melodies general pauses used metre = 4/4 dotted rhythms and syncopation create momentum and interest

Chopin- prelude no. 15 in Db major

CONTEXT Chopin born in Warsaw, Poland- became a composer, performer and teacher in Vienna and Paris Chopin composed prelude no. 15 whilst isolated in a monastery in Vallderosa in Spain because he had tuberculosis- infectious disease. Died a year later at the age of 39- 1838 Prelude no.15 is nicknamed the 'Raindrop' because it was written during a storm. Repeated Ab quavers represent rain A prelude is usually an introductory piece linked to another movement, however this prelude is a stand alone composition (1 in 24) PEDALA pedal note is a long, unchanging or constantly repeated note. A dominant pedal is on the 5th note of the key. Tonic pedal uses the 1st noteSTRUCTURE ternary form- ABA- with a shortened final section that ends with a codetta. The middle section is longer than usual and contrasts with the first by changing to the tonic minor key (C# minor) B section has a narrow range melody in the bass and a greater variety of dynamics. The coda (end passage) introduces a new but short melody. However, all sections given unification by the constant quaver rhythm dominant pedal notes.   MELODY The lyrical/ cantabile (in a singing style) right hand melody in the A section begins with a tonic triad descending to the dominant, then climbs stepwise before descending stepwise towards the end of the phrase. The melody then contains ornaments such as septuplets, acciaccaturas, appoggiaturas and turns Melody also sometimes chromatic. The first 'A' section melody has four bar phrases that are repeated with only small variations B section melody begins in the bass and has a narrow range. The opening four notes which rise and then descend stepwise are repeated as a rising sequence in the next bar. There is then an ascending then descending tonic minor triad ending with a repeated dominant note. Much of the B section is based on four and eight bar phrases, some of which are repeated.  The new melody in the coda starts unaccompanied and is then moved to an inner part before the final cadence. Its descent stepwise followed by a leap is repeated lower as the music subsides RHYTHMIn the 'A' sections there are regular left hand quavers. The right hand melody includes dotted rhythms and gentle syncopationIn section B the melody consists mostly of crotchets and longer notes in the bass, while the quaver pedal transfers to the top (& later an inner part)TONALITYC# enharmonic equivalent of Db. Piece begins in Db major. In section A, imperfect and perfect cadences and dominant pedal emphasizes the key. Music then moves briefly to the dominant and relative minor keys before relating back tot he tonic. 'A' section ends with an imperfect cadence, preparing the way for the middle section. Section B begins in the tonic minor (C# minor). The two loudest parts of the section seem to be in E major (relative major)- but no cadences to verify. C# minor soon returns. Section ends with an imperfect cadence in C# minor. Then enharmonic modulation back to Db major for the A1 section.TEXTURE The texture is homophonic, except two monophonic bars at the start of the coda. A section = melody dominated homophony and is often quite sparse with mainly 2 note chords above the repeated pedal note to support the right hand melody Middle section = thicker chordal texture. At the beginning of section B the repeated pedal note is moved to the top right hand part, while the melody and bass consist of low notes in the left hand. In the loud sections, the texture is thickened by octave doubling in both hands, often resulting in six notes sounding at the same time. The pedal notes moves to an inner part withing the texture USE OF THE PIANO In section A, only the middle range of the piano is used. In section B, Chopin makes use of the sonorous bass register.  Some florid ornaments- but not technically difficult legato/ cantabile tone needed and a wide dynamic range Tone reinforced with octave doubling and sustaining pedal used The soft damper pedal can be used at the start of the middle section where the music is marked 'sotto voce'  Rubato playing style (manipulating rhythm in order to play emotionally) Section A= simple broken chord accompaniment and higher pitch than Bsimple quadruple time 4/4b 31- bare 5ths makes music sound ambiguous (section B)dominant seventh chords also usedFEATURES OF ROMANTIC MUSIC intense expression of feelings and emotions in musiclonger and more developed melodiesmelodies more chromaticmore freedom in the use of musical form and structureharmony more chromatic with unresolved discordsdramatic dynamic contrastsmusic describes emotions, a story, characters or wordsexpansion of the orchestra with new wind and percussion instrumentsuse of folk music and dance rhythms as composers become very nationalistic and patrioticcomposers such as Chopin, Brahms and LisztFEATURES OF CHOPIN'S MUSIC composed almost entirely for piano long lyrical melodies with graceful ornamentation spreading arpeggios broken chord accompaniment subtle pedalling effects discrete use of the romantic 'tempo rubato' in the music virtuoso passages played very quickly a wide range of touch and tone quality a deeply expressive range of dynamics

Schoenberg- Peripetie from 5 orchestral pieces

CONTEXTSchoenberg, Berg and Webern became known as the 'Second Viennese School' of composers. Schoenberg later invented serialism (12 tone music). Peripetie is atonal, not serial. '5 orchestral pieces' was composed in 1909 and the first performance in 1912. A huge orchestra of 90 players is required. Expressionism is a style in which inner feelings are outwardly expressed as intensely as possibleFEATURES OF EXPRESSIONISM Intensely emotional Angular melodies with wide leaps High level of dissonance (clashing notes) Lots of atonal and extremely chromatic harmonies  Instruments play at the extremes of their range Extreme contrasts of dynamics No cadences, repetition or sequences no balanced phrases Constantly changing textures and ideas The additional orchestral instruments used include cor anglais, piccolo, bass clarinet, 6 horns, 4 trombones, cymbals, gong, bass drum and xylophone To add colour the instruments play in extremes Texture is polyphonic (several overlapping melodies) The tempo changes frequently Extreme dynamics Haupstimme = principal part, Nebenstimme = part of secondary importance- based on the hexachord haupstimme consists of a melodic idea and is passed between different instruments- for example the H horn fanfare at the start of the piece is then answered in a continuation from the trombones in bar 5.  The set of six pitches used for the harmonic and melodic material is known as a hexachord- D,F C#, E, A G# The use of hexachords create dissonant sounds Peripetie ( a sudden reversal) means a sudden change of fortune for a character in drama atonal Klangfarbenmelodie= tone colour and melody- different timbres of instrument are more important than the melody chord clusters add to textural density Last two bars contain a tremolo in the strings, horns at start are fanfare style based on hexachord The structure is free rondo form- sections defined by changing development of the hexachord and klangfarbenmelodie as opposed to melodic theme. Opening melody is called the principal voice melodic material moves quickly from instrument to instrument use of devices that alter the timbre of the instrument (mute, tremolo, pizz), cymbals played with a mallet and a cello bow rhythmically complex, triplets, tuplets and sextuplets a recurring feature- rhythmic diminution used disjunct and angular (leaps) minor 9th and tritone interval recurrs, dim and aug interval (very dissonant) wide range of note values alternates between two tempo ideas expressive phrases which are lyrical but intervals contradict this hexachord is transposed, and its complement is also used complex polyphony created by cross rhythms (duple against triple) from overlapping H in the B section, B section is more restless only N is a descending phrase- opposite shape to H so complement each other- question and answer C section- sparser texture, contrasting dynamics, different textures and changes in tempo (calm to passionate), symmetry as starts with a minor 9th interval and ends with an inverted minor 9th interval A = introducing H, hexachords and musical ideas he will work with, timbre- B = exploring klangfarbenmelodie and climax - A1 = H in different voice - C = rapid changes of tempo and dynamics, sparser, less dynamics, symmetrical - A2 = hexachords ENDING = epic hexahord, then horns which are hand stopped - muted effect- creates tense strangled sound

Bernstein- Something's coming from West Side Story

CONTEXT Leonard Bernstein- 1918-1990- conductor, composer and pianist fuses bebop jazz, blues and latin American Dance Rhythms- written in 1958 Story based on Shakespeare tragedy Romeo and Juliet. Stephen Sondheim wrote the lyrics Features = tragic, violent theme, use of long extended dance themes to convey the drama, fusion of classical and jazz music, focus on contemporary social problems in America.  METRE AND RHYTHM Some sections in fast triple metre (3/4) and others in fast duple metre (2/4). Accompaniment has an on-beat bass part with off beat chords, particularly in the 2/4 sections There are also sustained inner parts, mainly in minims. The vocal melody frequently uses short syncopated notes, pushed notes and off beat accents juxtaposition of long held notes by Tony and very short repeated phrases rhythmic augmentation used in the B section of the melody Vocal rhythm in the bridge has long note lengths and triplets, rhythm of the accompaniment same as before. Voice has cross-rhythms with the accompaniment on 'whistling down the river'

HARMONY AND TONALITY In D major with two sections in C major.  2 chromatic notes, sharpened 4th and flattened 7th appear in both keys and vocal melody ends on the flattened 7th of D major (C natural). Flattened 7ths are blue notes (jazz influence) The augmented 4th tritone interval is used frequently  Harmony is tonal but the chords contain, 6th, 7th, 9th & 11ths There is a dramatic neopolitan chord (flattened supertonic- Eb major 1st inversion)- in bar 95 TIMBRE Vocal part is for a tenor voice with some sections requiring a quiet, whispered tone. Song accompanied by a large,live band Instrumental timbres include pizzicato strings, clarinets in low register, muted brass, piano and drum kit In the bridge, high bowed strings sometimes using harmonics and tremolo. ORCHESTRATION5 woodwind players who double up, clarinet & saxophone, 2 horns, 3 trumpets, 2 trombones, 7 violins, 4 cellos, 2 double bass, drum kit, percussionists, piano, electric and acoustic guitarHow Bernstein creates excitement and expectancy- lively and fast tempo, fast triple time dance metre with 1 in a bar feel, short rhythmic riffs, short vocal phrases, ostinato patternsSTRUCTUREThe piece is almost entirely syllabic and based on the following 3 main themes:1) A quiet, syncopated opening theme.2) A loud, strident theme in the metre 2/4 that starts at bar 21.3) A lyrical, slow-moving theme that starts at bar 73.- The themes are repeated a number of times but are varied each time by Bernstein.- Bernstein changes things such as the metre or words each time a theme is heard.FEATURES aug 4th tritone interval ostinati (repeated musical patterns) blue notes (flat 3rd, 5th or 7ths) word painting piece ends with a fade out word setting is mostly syllabic starts with a vamp bar