Cell Organelles

Jessie Kanapi
Flashcards by Jessie Kanapi, updated more than 1 year ago
Jessie Kanapi
Created by Jessie Kanapi almost 5 years ago
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Flashcards to help memorise the structure and function of cell organelles, both Plant and Animal.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Plasma Membrane function Also known as the cell membrane - semi permeable phospholipid bilayer. It surrounds all animal and plant cells (under the cell wall) to separate fluids and substances from the extracellular space. It controls what can go in and out of the cell (semi-permeable). Small and non-polar molecules (e.g water, oxygen) can directly pass through into the cell through passive transport. Larger, polar molecules must go through active transport.
Plasma Membrane structure A: Phospholipid bilayer B: Intrinsic protein - Passive (Facilitated diffusion) and Active (Carrier protein) Transport C, E: Glycoprotein, Glycolipid, and Carbohydrate - Makes up glycocalyx (along with proteins, lipids, and sugars) to provide cushioning, protection, and gluing between cells. It also plays a major role in cell recognition. F: Hydrophobic Tails - deters water. Helps control permeability G: Hydrophilic Heads - attracts water. Helps control permeability H: Extrinsic/Peripheral protein - Cell signalling and interactions I: Cholesterol - Found only in animal cells. Controls membrane fluidity through the saturation of lipid tails.
Nucleus function and structure Controls the cell and carries the genetic code in chromosomes. This is used to run cell activity by controlling which proteins are made It is surrounded by the nuclear envelope (membrane) with pores allowing molecules in or out.
Centriole function and structure Forms the spindles used during mitosis to separate chromosomes. They are a small set of microtubules found beside the nucleus. During cell division, it moves towards the poles of the cell.
Chromosomes function and structure Carries DNA and RNA which contain the genetic code of an organism and their genes. It is a macromolecule that it essentially the compacted structure of DNA, RNA, and Proteins coiled tightly around the protein Histone. This structure is very important during cell division.
Cytoplasm function and structure Controls most of a cells chemical reactions and contains its organelles. It is a solution made up of cytosol (water, ions, small molecules, and proteins) that fills each cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum function and structure A transport system where manufacturing processes occur as it carries chemicals around and outside of the cell. Membranous sacs modify, store, and route products of the ER. Tubules maintain structure and provide platforms for intracellular transport. It also acts as a surface for biochemical reactions (e.g protein synthesis) It consists of a network (within the cytoplasm) of tubes filled with fluid , encased in folded membranes called cisterna.
SMOOTH Endoplasmic Reticulum function and structure Site of lipid and steroid production. It also works to inactivate some drugs (e.g alcohol). Smooth ER helps with calcium storage in muscle cells, controlling muscle contraction. Smooth ER has no ribosomes attached to it.
ROUGH Endoplasmic Reticulum function and structure Produces secretory proteins that leave the rough ER as transport vesicles to other parts of the cell such as the Golgi Body - where they are processed and packaged. It is lined with ribosomes where proteins are made.
Ribosomes function and structure Ribosomes synthesise proteins by connecting one amino acid at a time to build long polypeptide chains (folded into proteins). They are made up of RNA and various proteins. Ribosomes can be found in both the rough ER and throughout the cytoplasm. They exist in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Golgi Body function and structure It is the warehouse and shipping department of the cell that receives transport vesicles (proteins) from the rough ER. It modifies these proteins into small lipid vesicles and sends them to the cell membrane to be secreted. Consists of flattened stacks of membranes called cisterna.
Lysosomes function and structure The waste disposal system of cells that uses digestive enzymes to break down old and damaged cell components/waste/foreign bodies. They fuse with vesicles containing unwanted substances and release enzymes to digest them (phagocytosis and pinocytosis) They are tough, spherical membranous sacs.
Vacuoles function and structure Used for storage, usually containing fluids. They can store food or waste products to avoid contamination which is then digested by lysosomes. They are structured as membrane sacs and are larger in plants which carry organic compounds and keep them turgid.
Mitochondria function and structure The POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL that produces ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) for the cell by converting food/glucose into energy. It has 2 membranes surrounding it - the smooth outer membrane and the folded inner membrane (cristae) to increase surface area where aerobic cell respiration occurs.
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