Flashcards by maddygoldie, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by maddygoldie over 5 years ago


Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE) Outdoor Education Flashcards on Safety, created by maddygoldie on 11/03/2015.

Resource summary

Question Answer
Risk Potential to gain or lose something of value
Risk Management Planning to minimise the exposure to harm from foreseeable risks that might cause death or serious injury, and having plans to respond to unforeseen circumstances.
Hazards Conditions or circumstances that contribute to likelihood of an incident
Peak Experience Have highest level of satisfaction e.g. overcome challenge
Challenge Act of using personal competence in a risky situation
Misadventure If a group or leader has false perceptions about their ability they may chose to engage in activities that are beyond them, endangering people
Danger Thing likely to cause harm
Risky shift Level of risk in a situation may not be constant or can change quite rapidly
3 types of risk 1. Absolute risk - uppermost limit of risk (before safety controls in place) 2. Real risk - amount of risk at any given time 3. Perceived risk - individuals subjective assessment of the real risk present
First step for effective accident management (emergency response) Stop! Survey the scene: - Danger - Determine mechanism of injury - Establish body substance isolation - Determine number of patients - Form a general impression of the patient
Stop! Survey the scene: 1. Danger 2. Determine mechanism of injury 1. - Breathe, remain calm - Danger to self, others, patient - Put on gloves, avoid further incidents 2. - What happened? cause? - Medical, accident, trauma, environment
Stop! Survey the scene: 3. Establish body substance isolation 4. Determine number of patients 5. Form general impression of patient 3. - Disposable gloves - blood, bodily fluids 4. - Scan area for other patients 5. - If conscious -> establish relationship - Very sick/badly hurt -> rapid assessment is vital
Second step for effective accident management (emergency response) Primary Survey: identify and treat any immediate threats to patient's life - Response, Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Disability, Exposure
Primary Survey: 1. Response 2. Airway 1. - Determine LOC by testing response to verbal and painful stimuli - Spinal -> control head and neck 2. - No response = check airways (with gloves) - Clear on side if foreign material
Primary Survey: 3. Breathing 4. Circulation 3. - Look, listen, feel for 10 seconds - No breathing -> 2 initial mouth to mouth 4. - Unconscious, not breathing = begin CPR (30 comp, 2 breaths) - If starts breathing, place in recovery position, check pulse - Check major bleeding -> control
Primary Survey: 5. Disability 6. Exposure 5. - Don't move if spinal injury suspected 6. - Environmental factors such as cold, heat and rain will affect decision making
Third step for effective accident management (emergency response) Secondary Survey: After life threatening problems have been treated - Head to toe survey - Vital signs - Medical history
Secondary Survey: 1. Head to toe survey 1. - Close inspection of patients entire body before treating injuries - Ask about pain, look, feel, listen, smell - Start head, neck face - Finish spine and buttocks
Secondary Survey: 2. Vital Signs 2. - Level of consciousness - AVPU scale, alert, verbal, pain, unresponsive - Heart rate - regular, 60-80bpm - Respiratory rate - 12-20bpm, even - SCTM - skin colour, temp, moisture - Capillary refill time, pupil response, temperature
Secondary Survey: 3. Patient History 3. - Medical history attained to determine condition S - Symptoms A - Allergies M - Medications P - Past relevant medical history L - Last 'ins and outs' E - Event preceding incident or illness
Fourth step for effective accident management (emergency response) Patient Care and Monitoring - Shock management - Hypothermia - Hyperthermia
Patient Care and Monitoring: What is shock and its symptoms? - Shock: cells not receiving adequate supply of oxygen - level of consciousness - restless, disorientate - rapid or weak heart rate - rapid and shallow reparatory rate - pale, cool and clammy skin - pupils are slower to respond
Patient Care and Monitoring: How do you manage shock? Place patient on back with feet slightly raised
Fifth step for effective accident management (emergency response) Documentation and Accident Report Forms
Documentation and Accident Report Forms: Why is it important to record and keep on file all accidents? (3) 1. Assist with any further investigation into incident 2. Provide info for future safety management practices 3. Provide evidence should this be required for legal reasons SAMPLE
Hypothermia: What is it? What causes it? (5 ion) How to prevent it? - Condition associated with lowered core body temp - Radiation, respiration, evaporation, conduction, convection - Be aware wet, wind, cold; ensure you are fit; well-balanced diet; wear appropriate clothing
Hypothermia: Symptoms at different stages? 2. Management 1. Mild - shivering, lack coordination, slowed pace, thinking and moving. Moderate - hallucinations, decreased consciousness, shivering stops Severe - slow pulse, breathing, irregular heart beat, appears dead
Hypothermia: How do you manage someone with hypothermia? Mild -> moderate: DRSABC, secondary survey, remove cause, remove wet clothing, warm clothes, high energy food, shelter Moderate-> severe: DRSABC, gently place in tent, remove wet, dress warm, insulation mat, sleeping bags, warm environment, medical aid - check group after
Hyperthermia: 1. What is it? 2. What causes hyperthermia? 1. Condition associated with heat stroke (increased body temp) 2. Dehydration and unsuitable clothing while exercising or in hot weather
Hyperthermia: 1. What are the symptoms of heat exhaustion? 2. What is the treatment? 1. Thirst, dizziness, weakness, reduced urine, headache, HR and RR increases, pale cool and clammy 2. Rehydrate, shady area, raised feet, sponge and fan, monitor
Hyperthermia: 1. What is heat stroke? 2. Symptoms of heat stroke 3. Treatment of heat stroke 1. Failure of body's temp regulatory system 2. No sweating, above 40 deg, dry, red, hot skin, increased hr and breathing 3. Shade, remove clothing, cool , give water
Risk Identification - Thinking about what you are planning, why you are doing it and whether you have the skills to do it - Specifies what can go wrong and what could prevent you achieving your goals - Identified through experience of others, direct observation, own observation
Causal factors and controls Give rise to a hazard becoming a risk of serious harm to the participant. Identifying these allows for control systems. Controls - planned actions that reduce likelihood of hazard progressing to risk - people, equipment, environment
What is risk assessment? Being aware of current controls and detecting potential risks Likelihood of risk occurring and consequences
Risk Management Reduction Strategies: What are two examples of safety policies and guidelines? - Standard operating procedures (SOP): guidelines for us of equipment - Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): outdoor activities require minimal level of PPE e.g. helmet and gloves
Risk Management Reduction Strategies: List 4 other reduction strategies? - Risk disclosures: discuss nature of activity with participants - Know the participants: different personalities, medical needs, etc - Staff training: evacuation routes and full knowledge - Equipment maintenance: ensure gear in good working order
What is the difference between social and psychological factors contributing to risk? Social: reference to an individual's relationship with others and themselves Psychological: thoughts, feelings that affect attitude, behaviour and function of human mind
What are two purposes of monitoring and evaluating risk management plans? - Ensures procedures are properly managed - Anticipates potential issues, which provides chance for quick solution, and ensures situation remains manageable
Whats the difference between EPIRB and PLB? EPIRB: emergency position indicating radio beacon, auto set off when submerged in 3m water, for marine use, exact location, waterproof, float, 48 hr battery life PLB: personal locating beacon, not waterproof, land based, 24 hr battery life
What are the three types of radios and uses? - UHF (ultra high frequency): call for help and describe incident, limited range, 'line of sight' - HF (high frequency): vehicle based communication, large, expensive - VHF: common at sea
Who organises a search, rescue and evacuation? Police: - Search HQ - pre search info evaluated - Field search HQ - Field search controller - coordinates
What are the three stages of a land search? 1. Reconnaissance stage: quick check of high probability areas 2. General (rapid comb) stage: rapid comb of overall search area for clues of presence of lost person 3. Line search stage: thorough search of particular area where relatively small area of high probability has been defined
What are the types of searches? (3) - Indian file: searching foot track - Track sweep: line extended across track if terrain permits -Square search formation: pairs placed front, rear sides e.g. gorge
What are the types of searches? (3) - Parallel sweeps: team move through search area paralleling a feature - Creeping line formation: walk in line in easterly direction, reach boundary, change direction to north then west - Contour search: hills, ridges, spurs -> search in spiral formation
What are three methods of evacuation? 1. Self evacuation 2. Rescue team evacuation 3. Helicopter evacuation
What are the two types of evacuation procedures? 1. Immediate - hazardous impact, little or no warning 2. Pre warned - result of events that provide adequate warning for preparation
SOAP note Subjective info: who, what, when, where, how Objective info: what are their vital signs Assessment: what do you think is wrong Plan: what are you going to do?
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