Chapter 09 - Digestive System.

Josie Capolingua
Flashcards by , created about 4 years ago

Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE) Human Biology Flashcards on Chapter 09 - Digestive System., created by Josie Capolingua on 11/06/2015.

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Josie Capolingua
Created by Josie Capolingua about 4 years ago
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Question Answer
What is the Alimentary Canal? A continuous tube that runs from the mouth to the anus. Makes up the digestive system (along with the liver, gall bladder and pancreas).
What is digestion? The process in which nutrients are broken down and absorbed.
What are the (2) Types of Digestion? Mechanical: food broken down mechanically into smaller pieces. Chemical: makeup is changed, creating a new substance.
(6) Activities of the Digestive System. 1. Movement along alimentary canal 2. Ingestion 3. Mechanical Digestion 4. Chemical Digestion 5. Absorption of Nutrients 5. Elimination of wastes
Role of the Mouth in digestion. Mechanical: teeth break down food into smaller parts. Chemical: salivary glands release saliva, dissolving food so it can be tasted, salivary amylase begins carbohydrate breakdown.
Name the (4) Types of Teeth. Incisors: cutting and biting. Canines: tearing. Pre-Molars: grinding and crushing. Molars: grinding and crushing. 0736f813-babd-4fb7-b893-f0ddf3bd866a.png (image/png)
What muscles make up the oesophagus? Longitudinal and Circular Muscles. These muscles contract together to move food (bolus) down the oesophagus. Known as peristalisis.
What type of digestion occurs in the oesophagus? No digestion occurs in the oesophagus. It's prime purpose is to carry food from the mouth to the stomach.
Mechanical Digestion in the Stomach. Longitudinal, circular and oblique muscles contract to churn food into liquid chyme.
Chemical Digestion in the Stomach. Lining of the stomach contains gastric glands, secrete gastric juice, killing pathogens. Gastric juice contains pepsin, starting protein digestion.
Mechanical Digestion in the Small Intestine. Contractions of Small Intestine break food down further. Bile (secreted by liver) emulsifies fats to form smaller globules.
Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine. Intestinal juices (enzyme secreted by small intestine glands) and pancreatic juice (enzyme secreted by pancreas) continues chemical digestion of nutrients.
Carbohydrate breakdown. Salivary amylase in mouth: carbohydrates into polysaccharides. Pancreatic amylase in small intestine: polysaccharides into disaccharides. Amylases in small intestine: disaccharides into monosaccharides (glucose). (Amylases secreted by intestine.)
Protein breakdown. Gastric pepsin in the stomach: proteins into polypeptides. Pancreatic protease in small intestine: polypeptides into dipeptides. Peptidases in small intestine: dipeptides into amino acids. (Peptidases secreted by intestine).
Lipid breakdown. Pancreatic lipases and lipases in small intestine: lipids into fatty acids and glycerol. (Lipases secreted by small intestine).
Absorption in the Small Intestine. Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine after chemical digestion is complete. Large surface area makes for efficient absorption.
(4) Ways Small Intestine achieves large surface area. 1. Very long - 6m. 2. Inner lining (mucosa). 3. Villi. 4. Projections on the villi (microvilli).
(4) Ways the Villi is suited to its function. 1. Small - 1mm. 2. One cell thick. 3. Lacteal surrounded by blood capillaries. 4. Movement enhances absorption.
How are Amino Acids absorbed into the Villi? Active Transport into blood capillaries.
How are Fatty Acids and Glycerol absorbed into the Villi? Simple diffusion. Recombine to form fats, tiny fat droplets enter the lacteal.
How are Simple Sugars absorbed into the Villi? Active Transport. Through the cells on the outside of the villi into the blood capillaries.
What is the Large Intestine? A 1.5m long structure at the end of the digestive system. No digestion occurs. Bacteria breaks down organic compounds that remain. Semi-solid material is left after absorption.
What does Faeces contain? Water, undigested food material, bacteria, bile pigments and the remainder of cells.
What is Elimination? The process that describes the removal of faeces from the body.