Human Biology revision

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Human biology revison

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Human Biology revision
  1. 5 female hormones during reproduction
    1. Progesterone
      1. thickens nutrient based endometrium in preparation to receive a fertilised ocyte
      2. Gonadotrophin releasing hormone(GnRH)
        1. neccesary for correct reproductive functions, controls follicular growth, ovulation and corpus luteum
        2. Oestrogen
          1. starts off ovulation, rebuilds lining after menstruation
          2. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
            1. Controls menstrual cycle and the production of ocytes by the ovaries
            2. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
              1. development and function of the corpea luteum (yellow body)
            3. Functions of the skelton
              1. Support
                1. Movement
                  1. Protection
                    1. Storage of calcium
                      1. Production of WBC and RBC
                        1. Attachment
                          1. Shape
                          2. Polysynaptic Arc
                              1. How many neurones are found in a reflex arc?
                                1. 3: Sensory, Interneurone (Relay) and Motor
                            1. Reflex arc
                              1. involuntary response to danger, not learnt, the spinal cord makes the decision
                              2. non dangerous reponse, volunatry, brain makes the decision
                                1. Importance of enzymes
                                  1. Key for the bodies metabolism/facilitates chemical recations such as respiration, digestion and other important processes. when enzymes function properly homeostasis is maintain
                                    1. The specific action of an enzyme with a single substrate can be explain by the Lock and Key theory 1894 by Emil Fischer. The lock is the enzyme and the substrate is the key. Only the correct key (substrate) fits the correct key hole (active site) of the correct lock (enzyme).
                                    2. Diet
                                      1. What is Malnutrition?
                                        1. excess or lack of nutrition
                                        2. What is a balanced diet?
                                            1. Correct proportions of food - nutrients, minerals and energy
                                            2. What is the importance of protein in the body?
                                              1. building blocks of all cells, enzymes, muscle repair, channel proteins, hormones-insulin, antibodies, hymoglobin
                                            3. Respiration is a chemical reaction that happens in all living cells, it is the way in that energy (ATP) is released from glucose in order for other chemical reactions to happen.
                                              1. What is Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration?
                                                1. Aerobic: uses oxygen, produces 38ATP
                                                  1. Glucose and oxygen react together to produce carbon dioxide and water and releases energy.
                                                  2. Anaerobic respiration, doesn't use oxygen, produces 4 ATP
                                                    1. During stenuous exercise , not enough oxygen can reach your muscles, the waste product of this - Lactic acid builds up in the muscles causing tiredness and pain and eventually cramp. The lactic acid can be broken down again when you start aerobic respiration again.
                                                    1. ATP
                                                      1. many chemical reactions including: active transport, muscle contarction, respiration, RER, manufacture proteins, sperm
                                                  3. moving molecules
                                                    1. Osmosid
                                                      1. Simple diffusion
                                                        1. facilitated diffusion
                                                          1. Active transport
                                                            1. 3 examples: Gas exhange in the alveoli. Glucose and disolved food nutrients in the villi. Food nutririents in the gastric pit.
                                                              1. Large surface area
                                                                1. Short diffusion pathway
                                                                  1. concentration gradient
                                                                2. veins
                                                                  1. Arteries
                                                                    1. thick elastic muscle layer, high pressure, carries oxygenared blood from the heart with the exception of the pulmonary artery and umbilcal cords which do not.
                                                                    2. thin, elastic muscle layer, smilunar valves to stop back flow, low pressure, carrying deoxygenated blood to the heart with the exception of the pulmonary veins and umbilical cord
                                                                    3. The human heart
                                                                      1. cell organelles
                                                                        1. Mitochondria - converts glucose into ATP in the cell
                                                                          1. Smooth ER - produces lipids and membrane proteins.transports materials through the cell
                                                                            1. Rough ER - produces proteins in sacks called cristae, transports materials through the cell.
                                                                              1. Nucleus - controls many functions of the cell and contains DNA
                                                                                1. Golgi body - packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane bound vesicles for export
                                                                                  1. Ribosomes - composed of RNA rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis
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