Motor Learning and Coaching.


Western Australian Certificate of Education (WACE) Physical Education Studies Flashcards on Motor Learning and Coaching., created by JoseFINE Capolingua on 11/08/2015.
JoseFINE Capolingua
Flashcards by JoseFINE Capolingua, updated more than 1 year ago
JoseFINE Capolingua
Created by JoseFINE Capolingua almost 7 years ago

Resource summary

Question Answer
Skill. Describes an element of a game or sport, the ability to carry out a task, and implies quality of performance.
(3) Skill Categories. 1. Cognitive. 2. Perceptual. 3. Motor Skills.
Cognitive Skills. Primarily involving the brain.
Perceptual Skills. Involves how an individual interprets stimuli.
Motor Skill. Learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum efficiency and minimal energy. Involve physical movement.
(3) Characteristics of a Motor Skill. 1. Require relatively complex movements. 2. Learned and require practice. 3. Predetermined objectives.
(8) Characteristics of a Skilled Performer. 1. Produce the correct response. 2. Consistent. 3. Accurate. 4. Respond quickly. 5. Coordinated. 6. Analyse information and make quicker decisions. 7. Focus on relevant cues. 8. Be physiologically economic.
Classifying Motor Skills. Motor skills are classified in accordance to particular elements. 1. Muscle Movement. 2. Continuity. 3. Environmental Impact.
(2) Classifications of Muscle Movement. 1. Fine Motor Skills: small movements of specific body parts, precision required. 2. Gross Motor Skills: large muscle groups to create movement.
(3) Classifications of Continuity. 1. Discrete Skills: clear beginning, middle and end, short duration. 2. Serial Skills: made from a number of discrete movements. 3. Continuous Skills: no obvious beginning, middle, or, end.
(2) Classifications of Environmental Impact. 1. Open Skill: performing in a changing environment. 2. Closed Skill: performing in a stable, predictable environment.
Task Complexity Continuum. Based on how difficult a skill is to perform. Simple skills are learnt quicker often by imitating the demonstration. Complex skills require longer learning and practice.
What (4) Factors affect Complexity? 1. Number of relevant cues. 2. Amount of information to be analysed. 3. Available responses. 4. Task requirements, how much speed or accuracy is required.
Development of Skills. Both simple skills and complex skills must be produced in most sports. Simple skills and strategies must be mastered before attempting complex skills.
The Pacing Continuum. What are the (2) Types of Pacing. How much control the performer has over the timing of when the skill will occur. 1. Internally Paced: performer determines when to start. 2. Externally Paced: an external force determines when the performer completes a skill.
(3) Stages of Motor Learning. 1. Cognitive Phase. 2. Associative Stage. 3. Autonomous Stage.
(8) Characteristics of the Cognitive Phase. 1. Nature and demands of task are learnt. 2. Frequent errors in performance. 3. More concerned with what to do, not how to do it. 4. Basic motor patterns develop. 5. Movement consciously controlled. 6. Few cues recognised. 7. Demonstration is vital. 8. Time spent in stage is relatively short.
(8) Characteristics of Associative Phase. 1. Intermediate level. 2. Moto programs consolidated with practice. 3. Consistency improves. 4. Size and frequency of errors decreases. 5. External feedback is important. 6. Learner uses internal feedback to change performance. 7. Selective attention improves. 8. Time in phase depends on skill complexity, performers ability and time spent practicing.
(7) Characteristics of the Autonomous Phase. 1. Movements are fluid, coordinated and seem effortless. 2. Speed and accuracy of situational response. 3. Attends to relevant cues. 4. Little change in daily performance. 5. Detect and correct own errors. 6. Skills automated. 7. Skills performed reflexively and subconsciously.
The Learning Process. (Information Processing Model). Learning a skill involves the same processes: 1. Perceiving. 2. Deciding. 3. Acting. 4. Evaluating.
Perceiving. First stage of Learning Process. Data is received by the brain from stimuli/cues that are provided by the senses.
Deciding. Second stage of Learning Process. Brain makes sense of all the received data. Cues are interpreted and an appropriate response is formulated.
Acting. Third stage of Learning Process. The necessary movement is performed in accordance to the processed information.
Evaluating. Fourth stage of Learning Process. After the movement is performed. Athlete receives feedback from: 1. Own performance. 2. Coach. 3. Observer
Transfer of Learning. (3) Categories of Transfer. Circumstances in which certain aspects of a skill learned in one situation can determine performance in another. Describes the effect of learning and performance of one skill on that of another skill. 1. Positive Transfer. 2. No Transfer. 3. Negative Transfer.
Positive Transfer. When learning in one task is promoted by previous learning in another.
No Transfer. May occur even between skills that appear to be similar. Learning is not promoted by previous learning in another sport/skill.
Negative Transfer. Learning of a new task is interfered with by knowledge of a similar task.
Cues. Stimulus perception. A signal for action or a hint on how to respond in a particular circumstance.
(3) Types of Cues. 1. Visual: see what is required in the execution of a skill and the result of performance. 2. Verbal: from a coach, can be used to highlight the most important aspects of skill execution and provide clarification for what is being seen. 2. Proprioceptive: perceptions and sensations of how the body is positioned and moving.
Individual Differences. Account for variations in learning.
Fitness and Variation in Learning. Fitter performers can practice for longer and at a higher intensity.
Physical Maturity and Variation in Learning. Older children or performers have a greater attention span and take in more information. Older children learn faster than young children.
Motivation and Variation in Learning. Motivated athletes will practice longer at a higher intensity.
Memory and Variation in Learning. If an athlete can refer to prior knowledge they will learn faster.
Goals and Variation in Learning. Athletes with defined, time phases goals are more likely to succeed and improve.
Gender and Variation in Learning. Women prefer passive socialisation. Men prefer active socialisation. Menstrual cycles can affect performance.
Skill Level and Variation in Learning. An athlete's overall skill level will determine how complex training is.
Injury and Variation in Learning. Training must be modified to prevent further injury. Can demotivate an athlete.
Disability and Variation in Learning. Need to be encouraged to participate. Progress can be slower.
Perceptual Ability and Variation in Learning. How well the athlete can respond to cues.
Feedback. Information about performance of a skill. Given prior, during or after a game. Essential to improvement. Aims to motivate, change performance and reinforce what was learnt.
Internal Feedback. Movement is felt by the performer. Feeling how you shot the goal.
External Feedback. Can be seen, felt or heard. Cues from outside the body. Seeing the ball miss the hoop.
Verbal Feedback. Spoken from a coach or the team.
Non-Verbal Feedback. Hand signals and facial expressions.
Concurrent Feedback. During performance.
Terminal Feedback. Given after performance of a skill.
Positive versus Negative Feedback. Positive: 1. Recognises what was done well. 2. Encourages repeat performance. 3. Motivates. Negative: 1. Highlights negative aspects of performance. 2. Demotivates. 3. Elite athletes can cope better.
(2) Forms of Feedback. 1. Knowledge of Performance. 2. Knowledge of Results.
Knowledge of Performance. Analyses technique and execution of a skill.
Knowledge of Results. Regards results. How successful was the performance in achieving results.
Effective Feedback. Specific. Constructive. Directed at behaviour that can be changed. Given early on in performance. Positive and informative.
Frontloading. Before the session. Attention brought to key aspects of upcoming session.
Debriefing. After performance. Allows feedback to be given.
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